By Easter 1941, news coverage in the United States was beginning to reflect the ominous beat of war drawing closer to the country. The traditional Easter celebrations—the 5th Avenue Easter parade in New York City, visits to the blossoming cherry trees in D.C., and coverage of the Easter observations and style of the president and first lady—may have proceeded as usual, but echoes of the terror facing the world could be seen in things as minor as Easter egg decorations that year. Even in a neutral U.S., nobody would give up the chance to smash a hard-boiled Hitler!
Paramount News, the media organization responsible for this 1941 Easter report, would eventually be called on to join the national war effort. They lent their talents to the Office of War Information, which was formed in the summer of 1942 and was responsible for all international and domestic propaganda during World War II. But until then, they continued releasing their own coverage of world events, whether those in the government liked it or not.
Paramount Takes on the News Biz
In 1927, Paramount Pictures jumped into the world of journalism by creating a news division. For the three decades that it existed, Paramount News would produce biweekly newsreel dispatches like this account of Easter in 1941 that were often shown in cinemas before the regularly scheduled entertainment began.
While Paramount would come to collaborate with the government to produce domestic war propaganda and dispatches from the frontlines, not every politician was thrilled with their news coverage in the lead-up to war. In 1940, Senator Burton Wheeler from Montana accused the movie industry of campaigning for war.
According to a January 15, 1941, New York Times piece, the editor of Paramount News wrote a letter to Wheeler disputing the accusations, writing, “I stand on our record. Paramount News has consistently presented and will continue to present both sides of all controversial topics vital to the interests of the American people. May I remind you of our treatment of the Supreme Court controversy of two years ago, in which you were featured in our screen reporting? This is but one example, characteristic of our policy.”
A Basketful of Easter Traditions
Even with war on the horizon, expert Easter egg decorators were channeling cheekiness when it came to their craft, as seen in the Hitler and United States Navy eggs featured in this news report. While scholars debate when exactly the egg became associated with the Christian holiday, the roots of Easter egg dying are a little more clear. Some of the earliest evidence can be traced back as early as 1290 when King Edward I gave members of his royal court colored eggs (including some decked out in gold leaf) as an Easter gift.
The tradition was carried on and expanded from there. During the next few centuries, the peasant class would gift eggs to the church and their lords, often dying them red first. During the Victorian Era, the power dynamics of Easter eggs shifted, and it became a treat for children. But it was in 1885 that the tradition reached new heights of lavishness. That year, a Russian jeweler by the name of Peter Carl Fabergé began making intricate, gold-and-jewel encrusted eggs for the royal family of Russia, the Romanovs, that became the most sought after—not to mention expensive—Easter eggs ever crafted.
READ MORE: The Mysterious Fate of the Romanov Family's Prized Easter Egg Collection
About Those Cherry Trees
When the Japanese cherry trees in D.C. begin to bloom, it’s a sure sign that spring has officially sprung. But the road to achieving this beautiful backdrop for our nation’s capital was anything but effortless.
The idea to plant cherry trees in D.C. was originated by two different people: Eliza Scidmore was the first female writer for National Geographic in the late 19th century, and she was inspired to bring cherry trees to the U.S. after a visit to Japan; Dr. David Fairchild was an employee of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and he imported the first cherry trees to experiment with on his own property. After successful lobbying—and after gaining the approval of First Lady Taft—the two devotees received the green light in 1909 to proceed with bringing cherry trees to D.C. Not only was Operation Cherry Tree a go, but the Japanese had gotten wind of the plan and offered to donate 2,000 trees to the city.
But this first attempt was not to be. When the trees arrived in D.C. at the beginning of 1910, the authorities discovered that they were plagued by an arboreal disease. The trees had to be burned to avoid any contamination of American agriculture. The great blaze did nothing to stop the friendship of the two countries. Japan offered a new gift, this time of 3,020 trees, as a replacement. On March 27, 1912, the first ladies from both nations gathered on the banks of the Tidal Basin and planted two Japanese cherry trees in Washington, D.C.
Those trees may have set the foundation for the cherry blossoms that continue to grace the capital each spring, but they didn’t bode quite as well for diplomatic relations. Less than three decades later, the friendship between the two nations would quickly devolve, and the U.S. and Japan would find themselves on opposite sides of a deadly war.
READ MORE: The Drama Behind 100 Years of Washington’s Cherry Blossoms
Hitler What the Führer means for Germans today
IN GERMANY, as in the rest of Europe, copyright expires seven decades after the author’s year of death. That applies even when the author is Adolf Hitler and the work is “Mein Kampf”. Since 1945, the state of Bavaria has owned the book’s German-language rights and has refused to allow its republication. German libraries stock old copies, and they can be bought and sold. But from January 1st no permission will be needed to reprint it.
Those living outside Germany may not immediately grasp the significance of the moment. “Mein Kampf” has always been available in translation and is now just a click away online. But that is not the point. For Germans, the expiry of the copyright has caused hand-wringing and controversy. The question, as they ring in the new year, is not what to do about “Mein Kampf” as it enters the public domain. Rather, it is what Hitler means for Germany today.
“Mein Kampf” is a mix of autobiography and manifesto that Hitler began writing during a rather comfortable prison stay after his failed putsch of 1923. It was first published in two volumes in 1925 and 1926. The title means “My Struggle”, and Hitler certainly struggled with syntax, grammar and style. One contemporary reviewer ridiculed it as “Mein Krampf” (My Cramp). Much of it is dull or incomprehensible today. Some phrases demand parody: “Columbus’s eggs lie around by the hundreds of thousands, but Columbuses are met with less frequently.”
Woven into the prose are crude Social Darwinism and anti-Semitism that resonated even beyond Germany, as well as hints of the author’s murderous potential. Having been gassed by the British in the first world war, Hitler writes: if some of the “Hebrew corrupters of the people had been held under poison gas, as happened to hundreds of thousands of our very best German workers in the field, the sacrifice of millions at the front would not have been in vain.”
It is not clear how many Germans read the tome. But after 1933, when Hitler seized power, it became a bestseller. From 1936 some municipalities gave it to newlyweds after their vows, and by the end of the second world war about 13m copies were in print.
After the war it fell to the Americans to decide what to do about the book, because Hitler’s last private address, in Munich, was in their sector. The Third Reich was gone and the Federal Republic of Germany would not be born until 1949. So the Americans transferred the rights to the government of Bavaria. It banned printing of the book.
This approach reflected the first post-war phase in the German treatment of Hitler’s legacy. The idea was to suppress anything that might tempt the Germans to fall back under his spell. The Allies and the new German government followed a policy of “de-nazification”, under which known Nazis were banned from important positions. But as the cold war unfolded, West Germany was needed as an ally. For lack of alternatives, ministries, courtrooms and schools employed former Nazis again.
In the late 1940s and 1950s Germans avoided discussing Hitler. Many men were returning from captivity. Many women had been raped. People had been displaced, orphaned or widowed. Germans had been both perpetrators and victims, and had no words for their state of mind. Many were traumatised and could not bear to talk about their experiences. They found it psychologically easier to dwell in the present and keep busy with the Wirtschaftswunder, the post-war “economic miracle”. Many still denied the full scale of the Holocaust. According to Thomas Sandkühler, author of “Adolf H.”, a recent biography, a poll in the 1950s found that almost half of West Germans thought Hitler would have been “one of the greatest German statesmen” if he had not started the war.
Germans were glued to Eichmann’s trial. The details of the Holocaust it revealed split families
A new phase began in the 1960s, after the Israelis captured, tried and executed Adolf Eichmann, a leading Nazi. This made more details of the Holocaust public. Starting in 1963, 22 former SS men were prosecuted in Frankfurt for their crimes in Auschwitz. The Germans were glued to these cases: 20,000 people went to the Frankfurt courtroom during the sessions. For the first time Vergangenheitsbewältigung (“coping with the past”) came to kitchen tables, where it split families.
Sons and daughters accused their parents and professors of complicity and rebelled at home and on campus. Their elders retreated into sanitised tales of what they had done or lived through. A husband-and-wife team of psychoanalysts, Alexander and Margarete Mitscherlich, called this pathology “the inability to grieve” in a book of that title published in 1967. This mired the Germans in an ongoing moral and psychological crisis, they thought.
Official Germany found two responses. East Germany adopted the fiction that its righteous communists had resisted the “fascists” all along. In effect, it never reckoned with the past. But West Germany accepted its guilt and atoned publicly. It became a pacifist society, often called “post-heroic” in contrast to the Allies’ warrior cultures. It also became “post-national”: West Germans rarely flew their flag and barely whispered their anthem at sporting events. The young sought identity either sub-nationally (as Swabians or Bavarians, say) or supra-nationally, as good Europeans.
But starting in the 1970s a pent-up fascination with Hitler began to re-emerge. Two biographies and a documentary came out, and in 1979 Germany aired “Holocaust”, an American television series, which shocked Germans into a new round of soul-searching. Many changed their perceptions in a way that Richard von Weizsäcker, then West Germany’s president, expressed in a historic speech in 1985, on the 40th anniversary of Germany’s surrender. May 8th 1945 was not the date of Germany’s defeat and collapse, he said, but of its liberation.
After reunification in 1990—the formal end of the post-war era—the German public became ravenous for more research. Der Spiegel, a weekly news magazine, featured Hitler on its cover 16 times during the 1990s. A book by an American historian, Daniel Jonah Goldhagen, in which he argued that ordinary Germans were “Hitler’s Willing Executioners”, became a hit. A museum exhibition about the Wehrmacht, Germany’s wartime army, argued that ordinary soldiers (rather than just the SS) had participated in the Holocaust. Germans queued around the block to see it.
But there was a parallel trend towards what Germans call “Hitler porn” and “Hitler kitsch”. The Führer became a marketing tool. It started in the 1980s when Stern, a magazine, published what it alleged was Hitler’s diary, a sensation that turned out to be fake. Since the 1990s the history channel on German television has aired almost nightly documentaries on Hitler’s women, henchmen, last days, ailments, table silver or German Shepherd dog (called Blondi). Any footage of the small man with the toothbrush moustache draws an audience. In that way, Hitler has become like sex and violence: bait to sell copies or to grab attention.
But this fascination also suggests a new distance. Most of the audience, after all, now have no personal recollection of Hitler. This explains another genre: satire. During his lifetime, it was Germany’s enemies who parodied Hitler, as in Charlie Chaplin’s film of 1940, “The Great Dictator”. But in 1998 Walter Moers became the first German satirist to score a hit with a comic strip, “Adolf, die Nazi-Sau” (“Adolf, the Nazi pig”). Its producer called the character “the greatest pop star we’ve ever created”.
The latest bestseller is “Look Who’s Back” by Timur Vermes, translated into English this year. Hitler wakes up in today’s Berlin near his old bunker. Disoriented at first, he so amuses everybody he meets, including his Turkish dry-cleaner, that he is launched on a meteoric career as a comedian. His hip colleagues are convinced that he is a consummate “messed ekta” (Berlinish-English for method actor) offering a subtle critique of modern media culture.
For young Germans the Führer has thus receded far enough into the past to seem outlandish and weird rather than potentially seductive. In “Look Who’s Back”, he regurgitates inane phrases from “Mein Kampf”, such as: “The titmouse seeks the titmouse, the finch the finch, the stork the stork, the field mouse the field mouse…” But the words and the diction, with its famously rolled “r”, have no effect other than hilarity.
For the football World Cup in 2006 the black-red-and-gold came out everywhere
One by one, post-war taboos connected to Hitler are vanishing. Flag-waving is one. A breakthrough occurred in 2006, when Germany hosted the football World Cup. For the first time since the war the black-red-and-gold came out everywhere, draping balconies, prams, cars and bikinis. But so did the flags of the visiting countries, and Germany turned into one big street party. Hosts and visitors perceived it as nothing but fun.
In a poll by YouGov this year, Germans were asked what person or thing they associate with Germany. They named Volkswagen first (awkwardly, given subsequent revelations of its cheating). Then came Goethe and Angela Merkel, the chancellor, next the anthem, the national football team and Willy Brandt, a former chancellor. Hitler ranked a distant seventh at 25%. In the same poll 70% of Germans said they were proud of their country. About as many thought that Germany was a model of tolerance and democracy, and that it was time to stop feeling guilt and shame.
“The Greatest American Battle of the War” – A Visit From Those Who Were There
Care must be taken in telling our proud tale not to claim for the British Army an undue share what is undoubtedly the greatest American battle of the war, and will, I believe, be regarded as an ever famous American victory.”– Sir Winston Churchill, addressing the House of Commons on January 18, 1945
Commemorating a triumph of courage that took place 74 years ago, 55 Battle of the Bulge veterans, friends, and family members gathered in Washington, D.C. this week to see old friends, swap stories, and remember their fallen comrades. Special guests included soldiers from the U.S. Army Military District of Washington, who honored their forbearers with a wreath laying ceremony, as well as foreign dignitaries. Demonstrating their immense gratitude, the Ambassador of Luxembourg and Ambassador of Belgium celebrated the group by sharing personal stories of the valiant American soldiers who helped their families and liberated their countries. As is true with many of the members of the Greatest Generation, these men and women shrugged off the appreciation with the simple following statement: “I was just doing my job.”
Looking back on their youth, these veterans never could have predicted their role in one of the most significant battles fought by the U.S. Army during World War II. In the wake of the D-Day Normandy invasion, GIs believed the war would be over by Christmas. Adolf Hitler, however, had other plans. Rolling the dice one last time, the Germans launched a last ditch counteroffensive intended to exploit the weakly-defended Ardennes forest of Belgium, France, and Luxembourg, surprising and ultimately cutting through the Allied forces.
The harrowing winter weather aided the German advance. For ground troops, freezing rain and subzero temperatures caused frostbite for pilots, dense fog held off any hope of Allied air support. It was the worst winter in decades and as James Langford stated in an oral history recording, the first thing any Bulge Veteran will tell you about was:
…the cold. It was unbelievable. The weather was the coldest it had been in 50 years in that area.
In addition to the cold, the Germans had the element of surprise. On December 16, 1944, they strategically attacked a portion of the American lines guarded by recently arrived troops of the 106 th Infantry Division. Thrust into battle, many U.S. units stationed in St. Vith, Belgium were overrun or forced to surrender.
Letter from POW camp home. January, 10, 1945. Leipzig, Germany. Henry Wittenberg Collection.AFC2001001.102926
One of the “Golden Lions,” twenty-one-year-old father and Wisconsin native Henry “Red” Wittenberg, was captured and imprisoned at prisoner of war (POW) camp Stalag IVB near Leipzig, Germany. After 40 years of bearing his story, he shared his extraordinary experiences in an oral history recording conducted by his son, James. His collection also includes a thoughtful letter he wrote as a POW to his wife, whom he addressed as “Darling Shirley,” and daughter Judy requesting a few necessities.
Wittenberg’s letters and photos were on display during a recent event for Battle of the Bulge veterans, friends, and family members alike to view firsthand the story of the American soldiers who were often isolated and unaware of what was to come.
Eliot Annable and Alvin Sussman veterans with the 106th Infantry Division review a map of the Malmedy Massacre , December 17, 2018. Photo by Shawn Miller.
Accompanying the Veterans History Project displays were materials from the Library’s Geography and Maps division as well as the Prints and Photographs division. Battle of the Bulge veteran Joe Landry recalled his role as a personnel and equipment transport specialist during the battle. While reviewing maps with Ed Redmond and Kathy Hart from the Library’s Geography and Maps division, he pointed out the routes he ventured through, discussed the aftermath of the Malmedy Massacre, and described bullets roaring through his windshield during a close call.
Jonathan Eaker and Joe Landry discuss photos and Landry’s experience with the Battle of the Bulge , December 17, 2018. Photo by Shawn Miller.
Moving to the Library’s Prints and Photographs division display, Landry’s story continued as he shared with Jonathan Eaker about a chance occurrence during the battle that allowed him to see his brother – an opportunity that hadn’t been afforded to him for more than two years.
As St. Vith fell, the Germans advanced on the crossroads town of Bastogne–the final obstacle in their way. By December 22 nd , the German army had surrounded Bastogne. Lightly defended by the 101 st Airborne Division, as well as elements of the 9 th and 10 th Armored Divisions, the Germans sent a delegation demanding the Americans surrender. General Anthony McAuliffe’s of the 101 st Airborne issued a simple, but effective, four-letter response: “Nuts!”
The morale boost from General McAuliffe, paired with the clearing of the skies, turned the tide of battle. Bastogne held until December 26 th , when General Patton’s 3 rd Army relieved the embattled Screaming Eagles. The U.S. counteroffensive regained a significant amount of lost land and pushed through January, when the front was restored and the stage was set for their push into Germany. By January 25 th , Allied forces had prevailed and Germany suffered a strategic defeat. The cost, however, was great. The United States suffered more than 75,000 casualties, the greatest American losses of any battle on the Western Front. By March, the war was being fought on German soil and on May 8, 1945, Germany capitulated and the war in Europe was over.
For those Bulge veterans who’ve gone before and for those still with us, we thank you and honor your tremendous service.
The Veterans History Project extends warm wishes for the holiday season and the coming year—particularly to servicemen and women who are serving away from their friends, family, and usual holiday traditions -just as these soldiers did in 1944.
Battle of the Bulge Associations gathers together in front of the Library of Congress Christmas tree, December 17, 2018. Photo by Shawn Miller.
Want to learn more about Military service during the holidays?
On December 20th at 2 p.m., the Veterans History Project Information Center (room LJ-G51) will host a pop-up exhibition featuring holiday-themed items from VHP’s collections, ranging from 100-year-old greeting cards to contemporary photographs. Come learn more about the collections featured here and many more from the author herself. RSVP and get more details on Facebook.
Absolutely incredible story. I have studied the Battle of the bulge many times over, and it never ceases to amaze me The bravery encourage that these men showed. They are truly the greatest generation.
Thank you for reading and commenting on the blog. We do hope you consider interviewing the veterans in your life for Veterans History Project.
Thank you for sharing my grandpa’s story and letter to my grandma and mom!! Grandpa was a great man, we all miss him.
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Daffy first appeared in Porky's Duck Hunt, released on April 17, 1937.  The cartoon was directed by Tex Avery and animated by Bob Clampett. Porky's Duck Hunt is a standard hunter/prey pairing, but Daffy (barely more than an unnamed bit player in this short) was something new to moviegoers: an assertive, completely unrestrained, combative protagonist. Clampett later recalled:
"At that time, audiences weren't accustomed to seeing a cartoon character do these things. And so, when it hit the theaters it was an explosion. People would leave the theaters talking about this daffy duck." 
This early Daffy is less anthropomorphic and resembles a normal black duck. In fact, the only aspects of the character that have remained consistent through the years are his voice characterization by Mel Blanc and his black feathers with a white neck ring. Blanc's characterization of Daffy once held the world record for the longest characterization of one animated character by their original actor: 52 years.
The origin of Daffy's voice, with its lateral lisp, is a matter of some debate. One often-repeated "official" story is that it was modeled after producer Leon Schlesinger's tendency to lisp. However, in Mel Blanc's autobiography, That's Not All Folks!, he contradicts that conventional belief, writing, "It seemed to me that such an extended mandible would hinder his speech, particularly on words containing an s sound. Thus 'despicable' became 'desth-picable.'"
Daffy's slobbery, exaggerated lisp was developed over time, and it is barely noticeable in the early cartoons. In Daffy Duck & Egghead, Daffy does not lisp at all except in the separately drawn set-piece of Daffy singing "The Merry-Go-Round Broke Down" in which just a slight lisp can be heard.
In The Scarlet Pumpernickel (1950), Daffy has a middle name, Dumas as the writer of a swashbuckling script, a nod to Alexandre Dumas. Also, in the Baby Looney Tunes episode "The Tattletale", Granny addresses Daffy as "Daffy Horatio Tiberius Duck". In The Looney Tunes Show (2011), the joke middle names "Armando" and "Sheldon" are used.
Golden Age Years
Daffy's early years, 1937–1940
Tex Avery and Bob Clampett created the original version of Daffy in 1937. Daffy established his status by jumping into the water, hopping around, and yelling, "Woo-hoo! Woo-hoo! Woo-hoo! Woo-hoo! Woo-hoo!" Animator Bob Clampett immediately seized upon the Daffy Duck character and cast him in a series of cartoons in the 1930s and 1940s. The early Daffy is a wild and zany screwball, perpetually bouncing around the screen with cries of "Hoo-hoo! Hoo-hoo!" (In his autobiography, Mel Blanc stated that the zany demeanor was inspired by Hugh Herbert's catchphrase, which was taken to a wild extreme for Daffy.)
World War II Daffy, 1941–45
Daffy would also feature in several war-themed shorts during World War II, remaining true to his unbridled nature. He battles a Nazi goat intent on eating Daffy's scrap metal in Scrap Happy Daffy (1943), hits Adolf Hitler's head with a giant mallet in Daffy the Commando (1943) and outwits Hitler, Goebbels and Goering in Plane Daffy (1944). Oddly enough, it was only after these wartime escapades that Daffy is actually subject to conscription into military service, in the form of "the little man from the draft board", whom he tries to dodge in Draftee Daffy (1945). In the real world, Daffy was indeed "drafted" as a mascot for the 600th Bombardment Squadron. [ citation needed ]
For Daffy Doodles (his first Looney Tunes cartoon as a director), Robert McKimson tamed Daffy a bit, redesigning him yet again to be rounder and less elastic. The studio also instilled some of Bugs Bunny's savvy into the duck, making him as brilliant with his mouth as he was with his battiness. Daffy was teamed up with Porky Pig the duck's one-time rival became his straight man. Arthur Davis, who directed Warner Bros. cartoon shorts for a few years in the late 1940s until upper management decreed there should be only three units (McKimson, Friz Freleng, and Jones), presented a Daffy similar to McKimson's. McKimson is noted as the last of the three units to make his Daffy uniform with Jones', with even late shorts, such as Don't Axe Me (1958), featuring traits of the "screwball" Daffy. Starting in You Were Never Duckier, Daffy's personality evolved to be from being less loony and more greedy.
While Daffy's looney days were over, McKimson continued to make him as bad or good as his various roles required him to be. McKimson would use this Daffy from 1946 to 1961. Friz Freleng's version took a hint from Chuck Jones to make the duck more sympathetic, as in the 1957 Show Biz Bugs. Here, Daffy is overemotional and jealous of Bugs, yet he has real talent that is ignored by the theater manager and the crowd. This cartoon finishes with a sequence in which Daffy attempts to wow the Bugs-besotted audience with an act in which he drinks gasoline and swallows nitroglycerine, gunpowder, and uranium-238 (in a greenish solution), jumps up and down to "shake well" and finally swallows a lit match that detonates the whole improbable mixture. When Bugs tells Daffy that the audience loves the act and wants more, Daffy, now a ghost floating upward (presumably to Heaven), says that he can only do the act once. Some TV stations, and in the 1990s the cable network TNT, edited out the dangerous act, afraid of imitation by young children.
Pairing of Daffy and Porky in parodies of popular movies, 1951–1965
While Bugs Bunny became Warner Bros.' most popular character, the directors still found ample use for Daffy. Several cartoons place him in parodies of popular movies and radio serials Porky Pig was usually a comic relief sidekick. For example, Daffy in The Great Piggy Bank Robbery (1946) as "Duck Twacy" (Dick Tracy) by Bob Clampett in The Scarlet Pumpernickel (1950), Daffy was the hero and Porky Pig was the villain. In Drip-Along Daffy (1951), named after the Hopalong Cassidy character, throws Daffy into a Western with him labeled "Western-Type Hero" and Porky Pig labeled "Comedy Relief". In Duck Dodgers in the 24½th Century (1953), a parody of Buck Rogers, Daffy trades barbs (and bullets) with Marvin the Martian, with Porky Pig retaining the role of Daffy's sidekick. In Rocket Squad (1956), a parody of Dragnet and Racket Squad, Daffy and Porky Pig pair up once again. Daffy also played Stupor Duck, a parody of the Adventures of Superman television series. Robin Hood Daffy (1958) casts the duck in the role of the legendary outlaw Robin Hood with Porky Pig as Friar Tuck. Besides being playing parodies, Daffy also played a salesman-who continually annoys a potential customer into buying something: in Fool Coverage, Daffy actually succeeds into selling Porky Pig a $1,000,000 accident policy which only works under impossible conditions-unfortunately for Daffy, all the conditions occur!
Pairing of Bugs and Daffy, 1951–1964
Bugs' ascension to stardom also prompted the Warner Bros. animators to recast Daffy as the rabbit's rival, intensely jealous, insecure and determined to steal back the spotlight, while Bugs either remained cool headed but mildly amused and/or indifferent to the duck's jealousy and/or used it to his advantage. Daffy's desire to achieve stardom at almost any cost was explored as early as 1940 in Freleng's You Ought to Be in Pictures, but the idea was most successfully used by Chuck Jones, who redesigned the duck once again, making him scrawnier and scruffier. In Jones' "Hunting Trilogy" (or "Duck Season/Rabbit Season Trilogy") of Rabbit Fire, Rabbit Seasoning and Duck! Rabbit, Duck! (each respectively launched in 1951, 1952, and 1953), Daffy's attention-grabbing ways and excitability provide Bugs Bunny the perfect opportunity to fool the hapless Elmer Fudd into repeatedly shooting the duck's bill off. Also, these cartoons reveal Daffy's catchphrase, "Youuu're deththpicable!" Jones' Daffy sees himself as self-preservationist, not selfish. However, this Daffy can do nothing that does not backfire on him, more likely to singe his tail feathers as well as his ego and pride than anything.  It is thought that Chuck Jones based Daffy Duck's new personality on his fellow animator Bob Clampett, who, like Daffy, was known as a loud self-promoter. In Beanstalk Bunny Daffy, Bugs and Elmer are once again teamed up in a parody of Jack and the Beanstalk (with Elmer as the giant) in A Star Is Bored Daffy tries to upstage Bugs Bunny while in the spoofs of the TV shows The Millionaire and This Is Your Life, The Million Hare Daffy tries to defeat his arch-rival Bugs Bunny for a $1,000,000.00 prize given out by his favorite TV show and This Is a Life? Daffy tries to upstage Bugs Bunny in order to be the guest of honor on the show in all four of these cartoons Daffy ends up a loser because of his own overemotional personality (which impairs Daffy's common sense and reasoning ability) and his craving for attention.
Film critic Steve Schneider calls Jones' version of Daffy "a kind of unleashed id."  Jones said that his version of the character "expresses all of the things we're afraid to express."  This is evident in Jones' Duck Amuck (1953), "one of the few unarguable masterpieces of American animation" according to Schneider.  In the episode, Daffy is plagued by a godlike animator whose malicious paintbrush alters the setting, soundtrack, and even Daffy. When Daffy demands to know who is responsible for the changes, the camera pulls back to reveal none other than Bugs Bunny. Duck Amuck is widely heralded as a classic of filmmaking for its illustration that a character's personality can be recognized independently of appearance, setting, voice, and plot.  In 1999, the short was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry.
Daffy's pairing with Speedy in 1965–68
When the Warner Bros. animation studio briefly outsourced cartoon production to DePatie-Freleng Enterprises (DFE) in the 1960s, Daffy Duck became an antagonist in several cartoons opposite Speedy Gonzales, who refers to Daffy as "the loco duck." In Well Worn Daffy (1965), Daffy is determined to keep the mice away from a desperately needed well seemingly for no other motive than pure maliciousness. Furthermore, when he draws all the water he wants, Daffy then attempts to destroy the well in spite of the vicious pointlessness of the act, forcing Speedy to stop him. The Warner Bros. studio was entering its twilight years, and even Daffy had to stretch for humor in the period. In many of the later DFE cartoons, such as Feather Finger and Daffy's Diner, Daffy is portrayed as a more sympathetic character (often forced to turn against Speedy at the behest of a common enemy) rather than the full-blown villain he is in cartoons like Well Worn Daffy and Assault and Peppered. The last cartoon featuring Daffy and Speedy is See Ya Later Gladiator, in what animation fans call the worst cartoon made by Warner Bros. 
The Daffy Duck Show
In light of the longstanding popularity of The Bugs Bunny Show and its various incarnations on CBS and ABC, NBC commissioned their own half-hour series, The Daffy Duck Show, which began airing in the fall of 1978. While some well-known titles were included in the program, most of the cartoons featured on the series were from the late '60s Depatie-Freleng run.  The program ran on NBC for two years, then in 1981 was rechristened The Daffy/Speedy Show and ran for another two years.  Eventually, NBC cancelled the series, and many of the cartoons were reintegrated into the lineups for the respective CBS and ABC Bugs Bunny shows.
More recent years
Daffy appeared in later cartoons. He was one of many Looney Tunes characters licensed by Warner Bros. to appear in the 1988 Disney/Amblin film Who Framed Roger Rabbit. In the film, Daffy (utilizing his original, wacky characterization) shares a scene with his Disney counterpart Donald Duck whilst performing in a piano duel. In 1987, to celebrate Daffy's 50th anniversary, Warner Bros. released "The Duxorcist" as its first theatrical Looney Tunes short in two decades. Daffy Duck also appeared in several feature-film compilations, including two films centering on Daffy. The first was released in 1983, Daffy Duck's Fantastic Island the second came in 1988, Daffy Duck's Quackbusters, which is considered one of the Looney Tunes' best compilation films and featured another new theatrical short, "The Night of the Living Duck". Daffy has also had major roles in films such as Space Jam in 1996 and Looney Tunes: Back in Action in 2003. The latter film does much to flesh out his character, even going so far as to cast a sympathetic light on Daffy's glory-seeking ways in one scene, where he complains that he works tirelessly without achieving what Bugs does without even trying. That same year, Warner Bros. cast him in a brand-new Duck Dodgers series. (It should be stressed that in this show, Duck Dodgers actually is Daffy Duck due to him being frozen in suspended animation in some unknown incident.) He had a cameo appearance in The Sylvester and Tweety Mysteries episode "When Granny Ruled the Earth", first airing on March 27, 1999. Daffy has also been featured in several webtoons, which can be viewed online.
Daffy has also made appearances on numerous television series. In Tiny Toon Adventures, Daffy is a teacher at Acme Looniversity, where he is the hero and mentor of student Plucky Duck. Daffy is shown as a baby in Baby Looney Tunes and appears to have a similar personality to some of his earlier years with him being a rival of Bugs and saying Woo-hoo! a lot. show and made occasional cameo appearances on Animaniacs and Histeria!. In Loonatics Unleashed, his descendant is Danger Duck (voiced by Jason Marsden), who is also lame and unpopular to his teammates. A majority of these appearances try to emulate Chuck Jones of the characters.
Daffy has also been given larger roles in more recent Looney Tunes films and series. Following Looney Tunes: Back in Action, Warner Bros. has slowly moved the spotlight away from Bugs and more towards Daffy, as shown in the 2006 direct-to-video movie Bah, Humduck! A Looney Tunes Christmas, where Daffy plays the lead, while Bugs appears in a minor supporting role.
However, more recent merchandise of the duck, as well as that featured on the official website, have been shown to incorporate elements of the zanier, more light-hearted Daffy of the 1930s and 1940s. Producer Larry Doyle noted that recent theatrical cartoons were planned that would portray a more diverse Daffy closer to that of Robert McKimson's design however, due to the box office bomb of Looney Tunes: Back in Action, these new films ceased production. 
Daffy returned to Cartoon Network in The Looney Tunes Show, voiced by Jeff Bergman. [ citation needed ] His characterization here seems to incorporate some elements of Clampett's and Jones' designs while giving him an overall cheery if dimwitted personality. In the show, he has moved out of the forest and shares Bugs's house with him. Unlike Bugs and their neighbors, Daffy has no way of earning money and relies on Bugs for food and shelter. He tried on numerous occasions to get rich quick, but ended up failing repeatedly. Daffy's one possession he is proud of is his paper-mache parade float, constructed on top of a flatbed truck, which is his main means of transportation. While Daffy's greed and jealousy of Bugs remains, he appears to be less antagonistic in this show, as Bugs even tells Daffy in spite of his faults, he is Bugs' best friend and vice versa. Daffy serves as a sort of mentor to Gossamer. Daffy has difficulty telling fiction from reality he often confuses television shows for his own life, believes Bugs is Superman, and at one point hallucinates he is a wizard.
Daffy starred in the 3-D short Daffy's Rhapsody with Elmer Fudd that was originally set to premiere before Happy Feet Two but instead debuted prior to Journey 2: The Mysterious Island. The short features Daffy and Elmer in the first CG or 3-D depiction of these specific Looney Tunes characters. According to Matthew O’Callaghan, who directed the short, the audio comes from a 1950s recording for a children's album.  Daffy is performing in a hunting musical, when Elmer, who is in the audience, pursues him. Daffy is initially unaware of the danger, but quickly realizes the threat Elmer poses and outwits him by using the props against him.
Daffy appeared in the 2015 DTV movie Looney Tunes: Rabbits Run.
Daffy appears in the Cartoon Network series New Looney Tunes where he is voiced by Dee Bradley Baker. Daffy is often paired with Porky where Daffy will annoy and bedevil the pig, though occasionally Porky one ups Daffy.
Daffy appears in Looney Tunes Cartoons, where he is voiced by Eric Bauza.
Daffy will appear in the preschool series Bugs Bunny Builders which will air on Cartoon Network's Cartoonito block and HBO Max. 
Dell Comics published several Daffy Duck comic books, beginning in Four Color Comics #457, #536, and #615 and then continuing as Daffy #4-17 (1956–59), then as Daffy Duck #18-30 (1959–62). The comic book series was subsequently continued in Gold Key Comics Daffy Duck #31-127 (1962–79). This run was in turn continued under the Whitman Comics imprint until the company completely ceased comic book publication in 1984. In 1994, corporate cousin DC Comics became the publisher for comics featuring all the classic Warner Bros. cartoon characters, and while not getting his own title, Daffy has appeared in many issues of Looney Tunes.
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Crazy, right? Anyway, we see some of Zola’s next evolution in Captain America: The Winter Soldier. Also, if you squint, you can spot designs for his robotic body in the blueprints in the laboratory.
– In that lab, Red Skull can be seen looking at a book that shows an old-fashioned illustration of the Norse “nine realms,” one of which is “our” world, Midgard, and of course, there is Asgard.
– Peggy Carter first appeared in Tales of Suspense#77 (1966) and was created by (who else?) Stan Lee and Jack Kirby. Trust us, the Peggy Carter of the screen is a much more interesting character than the Peggy Carter of the page. Needless to say, the original Peggy Carter is an important part of Cap’s history, even if she wasn’t always quite the badass that Hayley Atwell gave us. We have much more on Peggy’s comic history right here, if you’re interested.
– Enlisted douchebag Gilmore Hodge appeared in that excellent Cap origin story I mentioned above, The Adventures of Captain America. In that series, it was revealed that Steve was part of a program of guys who competed for the role. The Hodge of the comics was even more insufferable than the jerk on screen, if you can believe that.
– Sgt. Duffy is a favorite of mine, mostly because he’s played to such perfection by Damon Driver. Duffy dates back to Cap’s first appearance in Captain America Comics #1. Part of Steve Rogers’ cover when he was at Camp Lehigh had to be that he was kind of a big, dumb, lummox…and thus, poor Sgt. Duffy, who wasn’t in on the truth often found his blood pressure rising because of Rogers and his “goldbricking.”
– Colonel Chester Phillips didn’t make his way into the comics until the 1965 re-telling of Captain America’s origin in the pages of Tales of Suspense #65. Needless to say, Tommy Lee Jones is more fun on screen than the comic book version of Phillips ever was on the page. His little speech about “super soldiers” to the folks at Camp Lehigh refers to how Captain America was referred to in his early days, and the name of the serum that would grant him his abilities.
1946 and Beyond
Easter Sunday, April 21, found a world at peace–well, at least relatively. Blasted, blombed and burned, Europe was rebuilding. Demobilization of U.S. troops continued, though some would be needed for the occupation of Germany and Japan. Rationing in America was nearing an end– Britain wouldn’t see the last rationing restrictions gone until the 50’s.
Tomorrow is coming quickly, and while it will still be a strange Easter, looking back and then recalling all that I have makes me so thankful– plentiful food, a safe home, and the opportunity to still remember, though with a smaller group, the blessings of Easter that don’t change, even in strange times.
Photo by Aaron Burden, courtesy of Unsplash.com
Thank you so much for stopping by, Readers and Writers. How are you doing? I’m praying that you all have a joyful, safe, and healthy Easter.
Brach’s Candy Factory
The monumental Brach’s candy factory in Chicago is a crumbling shrine to “The World’s Candy Capital.” Perhaps more appropriately though, the colossal factory is a tombstone marking the agonizing death of the American Dream. The factory is a well-known urbex location in the greater Chicago area. It was a great thrill to finally get to explore it physically. Before I delve into that let’s explore the factory intellectually.
German immigrant Emil J. Brach was an ambitious 22 year-old when he came to Chicago in 1881 to work for the Bunte Brothers & Spoehr candy manufacturers. The spendthrift Brach saved $15,000, which he invested into a candy company that quickly went under. Learning from his mistakes Brach rolled up his sleeves and took matters into his own hands. In 1904 the 45 year-old Brach invested $1000 and opened his own “Palace of Sweets” at the corner of North Avenue and Towne Street. With the help of sons Edwin and Frank, Brach attracted locals by making the delicious sweets in a single kettle in the rear of the store and placing them in attractive displays in the front. Customers craved Brach’s popular caramel in particular, which at 20 cents per pound was much cheaper than retailers’ 50-60 cents per pound. To keep up with demand Frank Brach delivered sweets to local department stores for customer convenience.
Photo: The beautiful terrra cotta Brach’s logo outside the abandoned factory.
The Brach’s company would move three more times between 1906 and 1913 to keep up the rapid expansion of their operations. Shipping was vital to their ever growing business. The company dispatched candy via horse, vehicle, mail-order and even by rail. The company’s widening markets expanded along with their burgeoning product line. Within that early growth period Brach’s added hard candies, ice cream, chocolates and nut products to their repertoire. In 1923 Brach consolidated operations into a $5 million facility designed by architect Alfred Alschuler at the intersection of Kilpatrick, Ferdinand, and the Beltline railroad tracks. At that time the company produced over 250 candy variations at about 4 million pounds per week. During the boom years Brach hired workers of all ethnic backgrounds. For years company notices were printed in multiple languages.
Photo (source): A Brach’s employee overlooks the panning procedure that gives hard candy its lustre.
Managing Brach’s reputation for quality was a top priority for the company. They were the first candy producer to implement a “Laboratory for Control” to inspect products. All candies came with a 30-day money-back guarantee and were shipped in special containers to assure freshness.
At the height of the Great Depression Brach’s was able to post a net income of $175,000 even with a dismal $1.27 million in sales, all while keeping more than 1000 people employed. The company was the first to grant employees raises during the severe economic downturn. They also served meals at cost to keep their employees well fed and motivated. During World War II the company was given the Army & Navy Production Award for the high-quality rations produced for the troops. 327 Brach’s employees served in the Armed Forces during the war effort and eight made the ultimate sacrifice for their country. On September 7, 1948 an electrical spark ignited corn starch and caused an explosion on the third floor. The explosion destroyed much of the north side of the factory. The disaster injured 18 and killed 11 employees, but occurred before the day shift before 2,400 employees began.
Photo (robert_g_gigliotti): Smokestack at the top of the factory bearing the Brach name.
Emil J. Brach worked vigorously until the day he died in 1947 at age 88. By that time Emil positioned Brach’s as the #1 bulk producer of candy in the US. Sons Edwin and Frank took over operations after their father’s passing. They tapped into the exploding middle-class market by positioning attractive candy displays in groceries and purchasing ads on television. The Brach brothers didn’t lose their nostalgia for their old shop either. In 1958 they introduced the signature “Pick-A-Mix” kiosks which are still present in modern supermarkets. Edwin passed away at the age of 70 in 1965 leaving his brother Frank in charge. By the 1960’s Brach’s produced over 500 individual types of candies. Unable to keep pace on his own, an aging 75 year-old Frank Brach put the company up for sale in 1966 and it was purchased by American Home Products.
Photo: One of the few remaining markers identifying the building owner.
Frank’s death in 1970 left wife Helen at the helm of the Brach’s candy fortune. Helen Brach visited the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota on February 17, 1977 and was never heard from again. Investigations into the millionaire’s disappearance failed to yield any conclusive evidence as to her whereabouts and she was officially declared dead in 1984. It wasn’t until 1989 that a federal investigation into horse racketeering turned the focus to her then lover Richard Bailey. Bailey had conned Brach into investing in horses and their relationship soured when Helen discovered the scam. Bailey was eventually convicted in 1994 of multiple counts of fraud and conspiracy to commit murder in connection with Helen’s disappearance. In 2005 accomplice Joe Plemmons came forward to authorities describing his role in the crime. According to Plemmons, he fired two rounds rounds into the visibly beaten body of Helen Brach. Plemmons then escorted two accomplices to an active steel mill off of Interstate 65. Two steel mill employees held blast furnace doors open when Helen Brach’s corpse was fed into a trough and incinerated.
Acquisition of the Brach’s brand traded hands over the past few decades. In 1987 American Home Products sold Brach’s to european candy and coffee producer James Suchard. Principle stockholder Klaus J. Jacobs sold Suchard off to Philip-Morris in 1990, but retained ownership of the Brach’s business units. In 1994 Jacobs merged Brach’s with another property he purchased, Brock Candy Company, to form Brach & Brock Confections, Inc. Ownership changed hands again in 2003 when Brach & Brock Confections, Inc. was sold to the world’s largest chocolate manufacturer Barry-Callebaut headquartered in Zürich, Switzerland.
Photo (akagoldfish): The abandoned factory as seen from the cracking parking lot.
The Chicago factory fell on hard times in the late 1990’s and early 2000’s. Artificially inflated domestic sugar costs and strict import quotas put in place by the US Department of Agriculture made operating costs in Chicago difficult for Brach’s. (These policies have essentially crippled candy production throughout the United States.) High labor costs also exacerbated the situation to the point where the owners decided to shutter the aging plant. Brach’s began laying off employees in 2001 and gradually continued until 2003. After 76 years in operation the “Palace of Sweets” closed its doors. Production of Brach’s candies resumed in Mexico where labor and sugar are more cost effective.
Video: Amateur video of the Brach’s administration building demolition.
Photo: Scene from The Dark Knight. Copyright Warner Brothers.
In August of 2007 the location was used as a set for filming The Dark Knight. The former parking deck was completely demolished in the scene in which the Joker destroys Gotham General Hospital. The factory can also be seen in the shot (far left), which was also rigged to fire explosives from the windows. The final scene from the Dark Knight can be viewed here.
Photo: A lone sign warns factory explorers of the dangerous wet floor.
Soon after filming occurred Brach’s Confections was sold to current owners Farley & Sathers for an undisclosed sum in November 2007. The sale includes current manufacturing facilities located in Chattanooga, Tennessee Winona, Minnesota and Linares, Mexico. After four years without a tenant ML Realty Partners, LLC purchased the vacated Chicago factory in 2008 for redevelopment into a warehouse. Visible progress on that project has not materialized.
Photo: The Chicago skyline can be seen in the background of the factory.
The abandoned Brach’s candy factory, much like the Barber-Colman plant, impressed me with its sheer magnitude. We were there for four hours before recognizing the time. Even after all that exploring we still failed to traverse much of the factory. Despite the immense size of the factory most areas were barren or cloaked in darkness enitrely. Almost every possible surface has been covered by taggers in a bid for some kind of street-cred. The upper floors in one of the larger towers are all but inaccessible without the aid of proper climbing equipment. The exteriors are perhaps the most visually engaging elements of the factory. If you are looking for photographic gems the total number of opportunities are sparse. In my opinion the Brach’s factory has a sweeter history than adventure potential. I’m quite satisfied, however, that I checked this off my urbex list before it disappears entirely.
Charley Project – Article details the Helen Brach disappearance.
Chicago Business – 2008 article describes potential investment opportunity for the factory.
Chicago Tribune – 2001 article discussing the shutting down of the plant.
Chicago Tribune – 2001 article discussing some of the workers’ reactions to the closing.
Chicago Tribune – 2005 article on Joe Plemmons involvement in Helen Brach’s disappearance.
Christian Science Monitor – 2001 article on high sugar prices killing US competition.
Google Books – 1948 The Billboard news snippet on the explosion that killed 11 and injured 18.
Google Books – 1952 Popular Mechanics article “They Make Candy by the Ton” with great color photos.
Monster – Company Profile for Brach’s, which has some historical information.
Reference for Business – Brach’s Confections corporate history and other information.
Unknown Chicago – Brief article on Helen Brach’s disappearance.
Wikipedia – Entry for missing Brach’s heiress Helen Brach.
Editor’s Note: The following biographical information about Emil J. Brach cannot be confirmed by legitimate academic resources. This excerpt from the 1996 book “Germans are Bad-Ass: A Compendium of Bad-Assery Throughout History Minus Hitler” is considered to be a complete fabrication.
Brach’s candy is synonymous with joyfully delicious candy, but few are aware of Emil J. Brach’s sinister motives for creating sugary sweets. As a German, Brach’s love for fine chocolate was surpassed only by Schadenfreude. Emil had a troubled upbringing as a child. His father Augustus was a dentist obsessed with hygiene, but is also described by sources as a vitriolic alcoholic with foul temperament. Brach’s mother Gerta was a strict Protestant who severely punished young Emil for the slightest infraction. In her mid-40’s Gerta was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, which up until the 1930’s was considered a death sentence. The diagnosis crushed Augustus and sent him into a sustained alcohol-fueled depression. Emil took great pleasure in seeing his oppressive mother robbed of her strength, particularly after she ate her secret stash of chocolate sweets. Gerta eventually slipped into a coma and passed away after a lengthy ordeal. The next day Augustus was struck by a carriage and passed away from the sustained injuries. With his parents out of the way, Emil vowed to immigrate to the land of opportunity to exact Schadenfreude from dentists and diabetics by carefully crafting a seemingly benevolent sweets empire.
The White Wolf returns
Just before Bucky Barnes and Sam attempt to jump the Flag Smashers, the two have one of many hilarious exchanges in an abandoned warehouse. Bucky's stealthy behavior prompts Sam to call him the White Panther as a joke, referencing the time Bucky spent in Wakanda after the events of "Captain America: Civil War." Bucky quickly corrects him, saying, "It's actually White Wolf." This confuses Sam for a moment, but the scene moves on without further discussion.
We first see Bucky referred to as the White Wolf in the second post-credits scene from "Black Panther." Some village children refer to Bucky by this name while he is residing in Wakanda under the watch of Shuri (Letitia Wright) and T'Challa (Chadwick Boseman). T'Challa later calls Bucky this name during "Avengers: Infinity War," before giving him a new vibranium arm for the impending battle against Thanos' army. "The Falcon and the Winter Soldier" marks the first time we've heard Bucky refer to himself as the White Wolf.
In the comics, the Winter Soldier and the White Wolf aren't actually related. According to Marvel, the White Wolf is Hunter, T'Challa's adopted white brother. King T'Chaka takes Hunter in as an infant after he crash-lands in Wakanda with his parents, who don't make it out of the wreckage alive. He eventually becomes the leader of the Wakandan secret police, and takes on the White Wolf moniker.
When first manufactured in 1907, Hershey's Kisses were wrapped by hand. In 1921, a machine was used so the Kisses would be wrapped automatically. This machinery also added the paper plume or paper strip flag to the aluminum foil wrapper to identify Hershey's Kisses, replacing the original small square of printed tissue that was inside the foil wrapper. 
In 1924, Milton S. Hershey received a registered design trademark (Reg. 0186828) for "foil wrapped conical configuration with plume" which included the paper plume sticking out from the top of the aluminum foil wrapper.  In 1976, Hershey received a registered trademark for the Hershey's Kisses foil wrapper.
During 1942, production of Hershey's Kisses was briefly interrupted due to the rationing of aluminum foil. Instead, the machines were re-purposed to create military chocolate D ration bars for the soldiers in World War II. According to military historians, these chocolate D rations served two purposes: as a morale boost, and as a high-energy, pocket-sized emergency ration. The ingredients of these four-ounce bars were a blend of chocolate, sugar, cocoa butter, skim milk powder, and oat flour, containing 600 calories. The specification for the D ration chocolate bars was that it had to taste "a little better than a boiled potato" so troops would only use them for emergencies.  By the end of World War II, Hershey's had produced more than 3 billion D ration chocolate bars. 
Kisses are one of the most popular brands of candies in the US. In 1989, the chocolate drops were the 5th most popular chocolate brand in the United States, spawning sales that topped $400 million. More than 70 million Hershey's Kisses chocolates are produced each day  at the company's two factories. Today's Kisses brand chocolates use Hershey's original milk chocolate formula.
In 2005, Hershey's Kissables were introduced as a smaller candy-coated version of Kisses chocolates. They were discontinued in 2009.
Though originally made of solely milk chocolate, many variations of the Kisses brand of chocolates and candies have since been introduced. Hershey introduces and discontinues new Kisses flavors constantly as part of its standard Kisses offering, including holidays.  In addition to the standard milk chocolate, varieties include caramel-filled, Special Dark, and hazelnut.
When introduced in 1907, Hershey's Kisses chocolates originally were wrapped by hand. The automated wrapping machinery was introduced in 1921.
The original wrapper was silver-colored foil and Hershey's Kisses were only available in this single color for decades. In 1962, Hershey became one of the first companies to change its wrappers for seasonal sales.  That was the first year that Kisses chocolates were available in different colored foil wrappers: red, green, and silver-wrapped candies were manufactured to coincide with the Christmas season. This idea was the suggestion of John Figi, owner of Figi's "Gifts in Good Taste"—a mail-order food gifts company based in Marshfield, Wisconsin. The green and red colored wrapped chocolates were featured for the first time in the Figi's Christmas catalog.
In 1968, pastel blue, pink, and green wrappers were introduced for Easter, and in 1986, Valentine's Day-themed wrappers of red and silver were introduced. Xs and Os have also appeared on pink and red wrappers as well as little red hearts on silver wrappers for Valentine's Day. "Fall Harvest" colors were introduced in 1991. Independence Day has silver with red stripes and blue-starred wrappers. Pink wrappers with "ribbons" on them to support breast cancer research have also appeared. Camouflage wrappers are also available, primarily on military bases. Kisses Dark Chocolates come in a deep purple wrapper. The Halloween themed Kisses Candy Corn candies come in a wrapper whose colors imitate the color of a candy corn with yellow, white and orange stripes swirling around the candy.
In 2016 four limited Holiday wrapper varieties were released: Santa hats, Kissmas sweaters that resemble knit Christmas sweaters, Kissmas Trees with plumes that read "Fa La La", and "Kissmas" Presents with plumes that read from me to you. The Christmas themed Kisses Candy Cane candies also come in a wrapper whose colors imitate the color pattern (red stripes and white chocolate). The original silver (for regular) and gold (for almonds) wrappers are available year-round.
All Kisses wrappers have the paper strip called a plume as an identification tag sticking from the top of the foil wrapper.  When the paper plume was added to the Kisses wrapper in 1921, originally it was a flag for the "Hershey's" brand, distinguishing Hershey's Kisses from its competitors.  A few years later in 1924, Hershey received a registered US trademark for its wrapper design, consisting of the conical foil wrapper plus the paper plume.
Later "KISSES" was printed on the paper plume, as well as other Kisses flavors. The company has also added special variety plumes (such as "cheesecake"). Special messages have been available for various occasions, including "Happy Halloween" and "Love is in the air".
"Christmas Bells" is a commercial in which Hershey's Kisses, fashioned as a handbell choir, perform the Christmas carol "We Wish You a Merry Christmas". It premiered in 1989 and has run each holiday season since in the United States it is the longest-running television commercial for the Hershey brand.  In 2020, Hershey's introduced a new "Bells to Blossoms" version of the ad, but was criticized for changing a 30-year running iconic holiday tradition. The company made the decision to air both the "classic" and newer versions of the holiday ad throughout the holiday season. 
Beginning with its own consumer research into product information, in 2015 Hershey led the SmartLabel initiative.  Hershey's was the first brand to adopt this Grocery Manufacturers Association mobile-scannable packaging standard. 
Kisses ingredients are cane sugar, milk, chocolate, cocoa butter, milk fat, lecithin, and natural flavor. A 1.45-ounce serving of Hershey's Kisses consists of seven Kisses pieces.  Kisses has the following nutrition information: 
- 200 Calories
- Total fat 12g
- Saturated fat 7g
- Trans fat 0g
- Cholesterol 10 mg
- Sodium 35 mg
- Total carbohydrate 25g
- Dietary fiber 1g
- Total sugars 23g
- Protein 3g
- Vitamin D 25.8 iu
- Calcium 80.8 mg
- Iron 1.4 mg
- Potassium 147.7 mg
Hershey's Hugs and Hershey's Kisses Cookies 'N' Creme are made with the ingredient PGPR (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate, E476),  which is used as a cheaper replacement for cocoa butter. 
On December 9, 2018, a member of the Wedding Cookie Table Community on Facebook posted a picture of a tip-less Kiss, wondering “Do this year’s Kisses look like this for you? Or are the tops broken off?”  Other members of the group began to check their Kisses and as a result, dozens of others posted in the group that many, but not all, of them were found to be missing their tips.  Twitter users soon picked up on the controversy and began to post pictures of Kisses that were also tip-less.
Hershey representatives had responded to the group's messages. At first, customer service told consumers that it was deliberate so the pieces did not fall off after production, but later on, they said the company was looking into the cause.  In a statement, Jeff Beckman, a Hershey spokesman, said, "We love our Kisses as much as our consumers. We make more than 70 million Kisses a day here in Hershey, PA, and we want each of them looking as great as they taste. The iconic, conical shape is one of the reasons families have loved Kisses for generations. We shape the tip on our classic, solid Milk and Dark Chocolate Kisses to create that iconic appearance. And while there has always been some variability in that process, we are working to improve the appearance because it's as important to us as it is to our fans." 
Rupert Murdoch’s “Deadpool 2” Has a Hidden Karl Marx Easter Egg & a Cut Scene of Baby Hitler Being Murdered
Deadpool 2 is a movie based on an antihero named Deadpool from the Marvel comic book universe. The film is a sequel and was released on May 18, 2018 (United States). There are 600 Easter Eggs, references & cameos in this movie. There is even a hidden Easter Egg of the hack writer Karl Marx, credited with penning the Communist Manifesto. Check out the 1 minute mark in this video to see what I am talking about.
The film was distributed by Rupert Murdoch’s 20th Century Fox along with Pedo-Bryan Singer’s modern X-Men movies. Singer is still producing Dark Phoenix (2019) despite being outed as a pedophile.
The original Deadpool film racked up an astonishing $132 million over the three-day weekend, making it the biggest R-rated opening ever and the biggest opener in the history of 20th Century Fox.
Fox is Rupert Murdoch’s Empire, and part of his empire is FOXnews. To most Evangelical Christians the FOXnews is the torch bearer for their good, ethical, Jew worshiping values. The dots don’t seem to connect in the minds of Evangelical Christians, and they cannot see that Murdoch is a Communist like all other of the “Liberal” Media Moguls (a code word for Jew). If Murdoch was steadfast in his beliefs of GOP conservatism, why would he make seemingly anti-GOP protest films like David Cameron’s Avatar?
“Avatar helps Rupert Murdoch’s News Corp boost Quarterly Profits To £554m” by Andrew Clark (The Guardian), reported on May 4, 2010:
Avatar, a saga of colonialism and environmental destruction on a distant planet named Pandora, has raked in record box-office takings of $2.7bn. It sent profits rocketing by 76% to $497m at News Corp’s Hollywood studio, Twentieth Century Fox.
In the book National Security Cinema: The Shocking New Evidence of Government Control in Hollywood written on June 27, 2017 by Matthew Alford and Tom Secker, Pg 62:
..the first comments by Rupert Murdoch himself upon watching Avatar were not about the film’s politics, but rather about how exciting it would be to use its 3-D technology when screening Premiership football.
Murdoch is only interested in his profit margin and the power of perception he will wield over the dumbass masses, with CGI technology being more cutting edge with every blockbuster film. Before the masses know it, they will not be able to tell flesh and blood from CGI. This would come in handy if you want to make staged events to manipulate public opinion.
It’s the Bolshevik way — to manipulate the masses with controlled opposition to lead them closer to Judeo-Communism. Murdoch is following in the footsteps of Lenin, the sick White-butchering bastard himself.
“Five Myths About Rupert Murdoch” By David Folkenflik (Washington Post) November 8, 2013:
Fox News serves up some of the most conservative voices active in American politics…And yet, this is a guy (Murdoch) who kept a bust of Lenin in his student chambers at Oxford University.
Since the Disney and Fox merger, many Marvel fans have been wondering whether Marvel Cinematic Universe or Marvel Entertainment characters can make cameos in each others movies despite the politics involved with a major business merger of this magnitude.
Deadpool (the original) pokes fun of the backwards politics of “artistic films” when it comes to bottom-line money men like Murdoch. Deadpool (Ryan Reynolds) says “the studio couldn’t afford another X Man” as the Deadpool franchise only has the rights to portray LBGTQ Marvel character Negasonic Teenage Warhead and an overtly “Russian” Communist silver plated X-Man named (Conrad) Colossus.
In Deadpool 2, Deadpool makes a similar joke about the lack of X Men involvement in his film, but moves on with excitement with news from Conrad Colossus that he has been selected to be a trainee at the X-Men academy. Reynolds begins to display homoerotic behavior by groping his new partner’s “organic steel” butt.
In the background of the grope scene in the grand staircase of the X-Mansion there is a portrait of Karl Marx in a spot reserved for such figures such as Abraham Lincoln. At the moment that Deadpool decides to be a hero, Karl Marx, the founder of modern Communism, is present.
During the red carpet premiere of Deadpool 2 in New York, writers Paul Wernick and Rhett Reese confirmed that they had cut a post credit scene where Deadpool went back in time to murder Adolf Hitler as a baby in order to preemptively correct the course of World War II. Wernick and Reese probably knew this would be Murdoch’s wet dream, but it was a no-go because it would interfere with his profits.
The film’s director, David Leitch, teased Deadpool fans that a deleted scene might end up on the eventual Blu-ray release. According to Vulture, “in an early cut of the film, Leitch tells Esquire that there was a post-credits sequence in which good old DP traveled back in time to kill baby Hitler.”
“We sort of leave it open to the audience,” says the Leitch. “And that’s what I love about that scene is, because it really makes you think about the character and who Deadpool is, and what was the moral of the story we just told you. And now we’re applying it to this crazy situation. And here we are standing with the potential to change history and it’s like, How are we going to change it?”
Since Soviet Russia and ZOG-American have won the 2nd world war, they have been running the world into the ground. To add insult to injury, they (the International Jew) are joking about killing Hitler as an innocent child. It’s as if they did not murder enough innocent life during and after the war (watch Hellstorm).
Children are being trained subconsciously via video games (eg, Call of Duty) to reflexively want to kill Germans as a knee jerk reaction. The gamer assassins many grow into adults who become military personnel, and they do not distinguish between Na-zees and Germans. Actually, anyone who our overlords label a “Nazi” is fair game.