History Podcasts

What rights did women have in Switzerland in the first few years of the 20th century?

What rights did women have in Switzerland in the first few years of the 20th century?

What were the legal rights of women in Switzerland in 1900-1905? Did women have the right to own property such as jewelry? Did items of value belong to her father if she was under the age of 24? Did they belong to her husband if she was married?

This is a little complicated as women's rights depended on age and / or marital status and / or canton. It would also have depended on the individual husband , guardian or father.

Generally speaking, for the specified period 1900 - 1905, married women and women yet to achieve majority (until 1912 this was 20 or 21 years of age, depending on canton) were under the legal control of the husband or a male guardian.

Referring to the period from around the mid-19th century up to 1912, Leo Schelbert's Historical Dictionary of Switzerland states:

The husband was explicitly declared the legal head of the family, and women's property, inheritance, and economic gains were incorporated into family ownership under the control of a husband or male guardian. A wife could pursue gainful employment only with a husband's consent or acquiescence, and in case of a disagreement concerning an issue, the male will was to prevail. Although a woman could represent the family before the law, a husband could rescind that right. In cantons such as Bern, a woman was totally deprived of her legal capacity for disposing of property…

Another section, referring to wives, says:

Economically they were mainly dependent on the income of the husband, who as provider was legally the head of the family, controlled finances and property, and was empowered to make decisions in all matters.

While 'property' above is not defined, the statements in case of a disagreement concerning an issue, the male will was to prevail and was empowered to make decisions in all matters suggest that what a woman could or could not do with her possessions depended on the husband. This would also have applied to a woman yet to reach the age of majority as she was part of a family of which her father was legally head. Undoubtedly, some husbands / fathers would have been more liberal minded than others (for example, some women attended university, joined commercial associations etc.) so it would be wrong to assume that no woman could dispose of any of her property.

For unmarried women of age and widows, the above did not apply for 1900-1905 as the institution whereby a male guardian was appointed when there was no husband had been abolished by federal law in 1884.

For the record: the Swiss civil code introduced in 1912 allowed married women to keep their earnings and control their savings, although this was opposed by the German cantons. The code states:

By force of statute the following are separate property: - (l) Objects which serve one of the spouses for personal use exclusively. (2) Property belonging to the wife with which Sch. 412, 10. B. G. B. 1362. Comp. Ger. C. Genl. Cora, of Goods, Sch. § 417. B. G. B. 1846, etc. the wife pursues an occupation or profession. (3) The wife's earnings from her independent labor.

Presumably jewelry would fall under 'for personal use exclusively' and would thus be hers to use / dispose of as she saw fit.

Women in Switzerland were not granted full equal rights in matrimonial law until 1988 (after a 1985 referendum), although there had been minor changes made to the laws of 19th and early 20th centuries.

20th Century Fox

Twentieth Century Pictures' Joseph Schenck and Darryl F. Zanuck left United Artists (UA) over a stock dispute, and began merger talks with the management of financially struggling Fox Film, under president Sidney Kent. [3]  Spyros Skouras, then manager of theFox West Coast Theaters, helped make it happen (and later became president of the new company). [3]  Aside from the theater chain and a first-rate studio lot, Zanuck and Schenck felt there was not much else to Fox, which had been reeling since the founderWilliam Fox lost control of the company in 1930. The studio's biggest star, Will Rogers, died in a plane crash weeks after the merger. Its leading female star, Janet Gaynor, was fading in popularity and promising leading men James Dunn and Spencer Tracyhad been dropped because of heavy drinking.

At first, it was expected that the new company was originally to be called "Fox-20th Century", even though 20th Century was the senior partner in the merger. However, 20th Century brought more to the bargaining table besides Schenck and Zanuck it was more profitable than Fox and had considerably more talent. The new company, 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation, began trading on May 31, 1935 [4] the hyphen was dropped in 1985. Schenck became Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, while Kent remained as President. Zanuck became Vice President in Charge of Production, replacing Fox's longtime production chief Winfield Sheehan.

The company established a special training school. Lynn Bari, Patricia Farr and Anne Nagel were among 14 young women "launched on the trail of film stardom" on August 6, 1935, when they each received a six-month contract with 20th Century Fox after spending 18 months in the school. The contracts included a studio option for renewal for as long as seven years. [5]

For many years, 20th Century Fox claimed to have been founded in 1915, the year Fox Film was founded. For instance, it marked 1945 as its 30th anniversary. However, in recent years it has claimed the 1935 merger as its founding, even though most film historians agree it was founded in 1915. [6]

The company's films retained the 20th Century Pictures searchlight logo on their opening credits as well as its opening fanfare, but with the name changed to 20th Century-Fox.

After the merger was completed, Zanuck quickly signed young actors who would carry Twentieth Century-Fox for years: [7]  Tyrone Power,Linda Darnell, Carmen Miranda, Don Ameche, Henry Fonda, Gene Tierney, Sonja Henie, and Betty Grable. Also on the Fox payroll he found two players who he built up into the studio's leading assets, Alice Faye and seven-year-old Shirley Temple. Favoring popular biographies and musicals, Zanuck built Fox back to profitability. Thanks to record attendance during World War II, Fox overtook RKO andMetro-Goldwyn-Mayer (Hollywood's biggest studio) to become the third most profitable film studio. While Zanuck went off for eighteen months' war service, junior partner William Goetz kept profits high by going for light entertainment. The studio's—indeed the industry's—biggest star was creamy blonde Betty Grable.

In 1942, Spyros Skouras succeeded Kent as president of the studio. Together with Zanuck, who returned in 1943, they intended to make Fox's output more serious-minded. [8]  During the next few years, with pictures like The Razor's EdgeWilsonGentleman's Agreement,The Snake PitBoomerang, and Pinky, Zanuck established a reputation for provocative, adult films. Fox also specialized in adaptations of best-selling books such as Ben Ames Williams' Leave Her to Heaven (1945), starring Gene Tierney, which was the highest-grossing Fox film of the 1940s. Fox also produced film versions of Broadway musicals, including the Rodgers and Hammerstein films, beginning with the musical version of State Fair, the only work that the famous team wrote especially for films, in 1945, and continuing years later withCarousel in 1956, The King and I, and The Sound of Music. They also made the 1958 film version of South Pacific. Fox released B pictures made by producers Edward L. Alperson from the mid-1940s and Robert L. Lippert (Regal and later Associated Pictures Inc.) in the mid-1950s.

After the war, and with the advent of television, audiences slowly drifted away. Twentieth Century-Fox held on to its theaters until a court-mandated "divorce" they were spun off as Fox National Theaters in 1953. [9]  That year, with attendance at half the 1946 level, Twentieth Century-Fox gambled on an unproven gimmick. Noting that the two film sensations of 1952 had been Cinerama, which required three projectors to fill a giant curved screen, and "Natural Vision"كD, which got its effects of depth by requiring the use of polarized glasses, Fox mortgaged its studio to buy rights to a French anamorphic projection system which gave a slight illusion of depth without glasses. President Spyros Skouras struck a deal with the inventor Henri Chrétien, leaving the other film studios empty-handed, and in 1953 introduced CinemaScope in the studio's groundbreaking feature film The Robe. [10]

The success of The Robe was large enough for Zanuck to announce in February 1953 that henceforth all Fox pictures would be made in CinemaScope. [11]  To convince theater owners to install this new process, Fox agreed to help pay conversion costs (about $25,000 per screen) and to ensure enough product, Fox gave access to CinemaScope to any rival studio choosing to use it. Seeing the box-office for the first two CinemaScope features, The Robe and How to Marry a Millionaire, Warner Bros., MGM, Universal Pictures (then known asUniversal-International), Columbia Pictures and Disney quickly adopted the process. In 1956 Fox engaged Robert Lippert to establish a subsidiary company, Regal Pictures, later Associated Producers Incorporated to film B pictures in CinemaScope (but "branded" RegalScope).

CinemaScope brought a brief upturn in attendance, but by 1956 the numbers again began to slide. [12] [13]  That year Darryl Zanuck announced his resignation as head of production. Zanuck moved to Paris, setting up as an independent producer, seldom being in the United States for many years.

Production and financial problems [ edit ]

Zanuck's successor, producer Buddy Adler, died a year later. [14]  President Spyros Skouras brought in a series of production executives, but none had Zanuck's success. By the early 1960s Fox was in trouble. A new version of Cleopatra had begun in 1959 with Joan Collinsin the lead. [15]  As a publicity gimmick, producer Walter Wanger offered one million dollars to Elizabeth Taylor if she would star [15]  she accepted, and costs for Cleopatra began to escalate, aggravated by Richard Burton's on-set romance with Taylor, the surrounding media frenzy, and Skouras' selfish preferences and inexperienced micromanagement on the film's production. Not even his showmanship made up for his considerable lack of filmmaking in speeding up production on Cleopatra.

Meanwhile, another remake—of the 1940 Cary Grant hit My Favorite Wife— was rushed into production in an attempt to turn over a quick profit to help keep Fox afloat. Theromantic comedy entitled Something's Got to Give paired Marilyn Monroe, Fox's most bankable star of the 1950s, with Dean Martin, and director George Cukor. The troubled Monroe caused delays on a daily basis, and it quickly descended into a costly debacle. As Cleopatra ' s budget passed the ten-million-dollar mark, settling somewhere around $40 million, Fox sold its back lot (now the site of Century City) to Alcoa in 1961 to raise cash. After several weeks of script rewrites on the Monroe picture and very little progress, mostly due to the director George Cukor's slow and repetitive filming, in addition to Monroe's chronic sinusitus, Marilyn Monroe was fired from Something's Got to Give [15]  and two months later she was found dead. According to Fox files she was rehired within weeks for a two-picture deal totaling one million dollars, $500K to finish Something's Got to Give, plus a bonus at completion, and $500K for What a Way to Go. Elizabeth Taylor's disruptive [neutrality is disputed]  reign on the Cleopatra set continued unchallenged from 1960 into 1962, though three Fox executives went to Rome in June 1962 to fire her. [citation needed]  They learned that director Joseph L. Mankiewicz had filmed out of sequence and had only done interiors, so Fox was then forced to allow Taylor several more weeks of filming. In the meantime that summer of 1962, Fox released nearly all of its contract stars, including Jayne Mansfield. [16] [17]

With few pictures on the schedule, Skouras wanted to rush Zanuck's big-budget war epic The Longest Day, [15]  a highly accurate account of the Allied invasion of Normandy on June 6, 1944, with a huge international cast, into release as another source of quick cash. This offended Zanuck, still Fox's largest shareholder, for whom The Longest Day was a labor of love that he had dearly wanted to produce for years. After it became clear that Something's Got to Give would not be able to progress without Monroe in the lead (Martin had refused to work with anyone else), Skouras finally decided that something had to give and re-signed her. But days before filming was due to resume, she was found dead at her Los Angeles home and the picture resumed filming as Move Over, Darling, with Doris Day and James Garner in the leads. Released in 1963, the film was a hit. [18] The unfinished scenes from Something's Got to Give were shelved for nearly 40 years. Rather than being rushed into release as if it were a B-picture, The Longest Day was lovingly and carefully produced under Zanuck's supervision. It was finally released at a length of three hours, and went on to be recognized as one of the great World War II films.

At the next board meeting, Zanuck spoke for eight hours, convincing directors that Skouras was mismanaging the company and that he was the only possible successor. Zanuck was installed as chairman, and then named his son Richard Zanuck as president. [19]  This new management group seized Cleopatra and rushed it to completion, shut down the studio, laid off the entire staff to save money, axed the long-running Movietone Newsreel and made a series of cheap, popular pictures that restored Fox as a major studio. The saving grace to the studio's fortunes came from the tremendous success of The Sound of Music (1965), [20]  an expensive and handsomely produced film adaptation of the highly acclaimed Rodgers and Hammerstein Broadway musical, which became one of the all-time greatest box office hits and went on to win five Academy Awards, including Best Director (Robert Wise) and Best Picture of the Year.

Fox also had two big science-fiction hits in the 1960s: Fantastic Voyage (which introduced Raquel Welch to film audiences) in 1966, and the original Planet of the Apes, starringCharlton Heston, Kim Hunter, and Roddy McDowall, in 1968. Fantastic Voyage was the last film made in CinemaScope, which was ultimately replaced by Panavision lenses.

Zanuck stayed on as chairman until 1971, but there were several expensive flops in his last years, resulting in Fox posting losses from 1969 to 1971. Following his removal, and after an uncertain period, new management brought Fox back to health. Under president Gordon T. Stulberg and production head Alan Ladd, Jr., Fox films connected with modern audiences. Stulberg used the profits to acquire resort properties, soft-drink bottlers, Australian theaters, and other properties in an attempt to diversify enough to offset the boom-or-bust cycle of picture-making.

Foreshadowing a pattern of film production still yet to come, in late 1973 Twentieth Century-Fox joined forces with Warner Bros. to co-produce The Towering Inferno (1974), [21] an all-star action blockbuster from producer Irwin Allen. Both studios found themselves owning the rights to books about burning skyscrapers. Allen insisted on a meeting with the heads of both studios and announced that as Fox was already in the lead with their property it would be career suicide to have competing movies. And so the first joint venture studio deal was struck. In hindsight whilst it may be common place now, back in the 1970s it was a risky, but revolutionary idea that paid off handsomely at both the domestic and international box offices around the world.

In 1977, Fox's success reached new heights and produced the most profitable film made up to that time, Star Wars. Substantial financial gains were realized as a result of the film's unprecedented success: from a low of $6 in June 1976, stock prices more than quadrupled to almost $27 after Star Wars' release 1976 revenues of $195 million rose to $301 million in 1977. [22]

Marvin Davis and Rupert Murdoch [ edit ]

With financial stability came new owners, when Fox was sold for more than $700 million in 1981 to investors Marc Rich and Marvin Davis. Fox's assets included Pebble Beach Golf Links, the Aspen Skiing Company, and a Century City property upon which Davis built and twice sold Fox Plaza.

By 1985, Rich was a fugitive from U.S. justice, and Davis bought out his interest in Fox for $116 million. [23]  Davis sold this interest toRupert Murdoch for $250 million in March 1985. Davis later backed out of a deal with Murdoch to purchase John Kluge's Metromedia television stations. [23]  Murdoch went alone and bought the stations, and later bought out Davis' remaining stake in Fox for $325 million. [23]

To gain FCC approval of Fox's purchase of Metromedia's television holdings, once the stations of the long dissolved DuMont network, Murdoch had to become a U.S. citizen. He did so in 1985, and in 1986 the new Fox Broadcasting Company took to the air. Over the next 20-odd years, the network and owned-stations group expanded to become extremely profitable for News Corp.

Since January 2000, this company has been the international distributor for MGM/UA releases. In the 1980s, Fox—through a joint venture with CBS, called CBS/Fox Video—had distributed certain UA films on video, thus UA has come full circle by switching to Fox for video distribution. Fox also makes money distributing films for small independent film companies.

In 2008, Fox announced an Asian subsidiary, Fox STAR Studios, a joint venture with STAR TV, also owned by News Corporation. It was reported that Fox STAR would start by producing films for the Bollywood market, then expand to several Asian markets. [24]

In August 2012, 20th Century Fox signed a five-year deal with DreamWorks Animation to distribute in domestic and international markets. However, the deal did not include the distribution rights of previously released films which DreamWorks Animation acquired from Paramount Pictures later in 2014. [25]  Fox's deal with DreamWorks Animation will end on June 2, 2017 with Captain Underpants: The First Epic Movie, with Universal Pictures taking over the distribution deal with DreamWorks Animation due to NBCUniversal's acquisition of DreamWorks Animation on August 22, 2016, starting on March 1, 2019 with the release of How to Train Your Dragon 3.

In 2012, Rupert Murdoch announced that News Corp. would be split into two publishing and media-oriented companies a new News Corporation, and㺕st Century Fox, which houses Fox Entertainment Group and 20th Century Fox. Murdoch considered the name of the new company a way to maintain the 20th Century Fox's heritage as the group advances into the future. [26] [27]

As of 2016, in Australia, 20th Century Fox has an expanded movie deal to replay movie and television content from television broadcasters, Network Ten, Eleven and Oneoccasionally also on Nine Network,ىGem &ىGo!. [citation needed]

In Sweden, the Netherlands and in the Philippines, 20th Century Fox films are distributed by fellow rival Warner Bros. [citation needed]

6 Logical Fallacies You Can Expect From Feminists And SJWs

John Carver is a four year ROK veteran with over fifty articles of SJW-triggering truth bombs on archive. You can follow him on Twitter if you are so inclined.

Logic and reason have never been the strong points of feminists and the social justice crowd. Really, we are truly overwhelmed by how often they slander, sabotage, and twist around our arguments with their childish bickering, profanity-laced tirades, and all-round third rate debating skills.

You can learn about a wide range of logical fallacies right here, but there are six specific fallacies which feminists and social justice warriors are particularly prone to use whenever they land on a manosphere website. Did you write an article about short hair, eating disorders, or ugly tattoos? Chances are you might become acquainted with a few (if not all) of these fallacies in a single counter-argument.

1. The Strawman fallacy

Is this your husband? Because you speak of him all the time…

The Strawman fallacy, or sometimes laughably called the “Straw Person” fallacy by SJWs who get all riled up on gender neutrality issues, is the deliberate exaggeration and misrepresentation of somebody’s argument. This is the first fallacy explored in this article precisely because it’s also the most commonly used by our opponents. Jesus H. Christ, do the feminists and social justice warriors ever love to strawman.

To showcase a prominent example of this fallacy, Ana Kasparian (the stuck-up talking head of “The Young Turks” fame) presents a lengthy tirade against Roosh’s article “No One Would Have Died If PUAHate Killer Elliot Rodger Learned Game” in the upcoming video, which aired back in 2014.

Of particular interest, she attacks a segment of his article which is read between the 2:00 – 2:35 minute marker. At this point, Ana exaggerates and misrepresents Roosh’s statement to such an extent, that she thinks (that he thinks) the female victims of Elliot Rodger’s rampage “deserved to get shot and deserved to get attacked.

C’mon missy. You and I both damn well know that Roosh did not say, nor imply, anything to that matter.

2. Ad hominem

All of you “Kings” have tiny penises!

“Ad Hominem” is attacking somebody’s character or personality traits in a much more confrontational attempt to undermine their argument. With many feminists and SJW’s being naturally profane, degenerate, and all-around insufferable human beings, using ad hominem attacks against the manosphere comes naturally for them.

Be on the lookout for exclamations that we all have “tiny penises”, that we should all go “jump off a cliff,” that we are “fetid little trolls,” and all other colorful variations of misandry mayhem coming out of their sewer chutes.

3. Anecdotal evidence

Or your short hair and tattoos…

Anecdotes are personal experiences or isolated examples given as testimony from a third party. Their counter-argument generally has the implied purpose of demeaning or giving less credibility to the original argument, while at the same time offering no compelling evidence to back up their claims.

Matt Forney’s world famous article 𔄝 Reasons Why Girls With Tattoos And Piercings Are Broken” is absolutely brimming with anecdotes from SJW’s as to why (they think) his article is complete rubbish, even though there are a lot of truths within the piece. The hilariously cut-and-paste formula for their rebuttal goes a little something like this…

Frequently Used Miniwebtools:

If you like Leap Years List, please consider adding a link to this tool by copy/paste the following code:

Do us a favor and answer 3 quick questions

Thank you for participating in our survey. Your input will help us to improve our services.


We spend much time and money each year so you can access, for FREE, hundreds of tools and calculators. This is made possible only thanks to the adverting on our site.

Please help us continue to provide you with free, quality online tools by turing off your ad blocker or subscribing to our 100% Ad-Free Premium version. For instructions on how to disable your ad blocker, click here.


Between 1933 and 1937, a custom record label called Fox Movietone was produced starting at F-100 and running through F-136. It featured songs from Fox movies, first using material recorded and issued on Victor's Bluebird label and halfway through switched to material recorded and issued on ARC's dime store labels (Melotone, Perfect, etc.). These scarce records were sold only at Fox Theaters.

Fox Music has been Fox's music arm since 2000. It encompasses music publishing and licensing businesses, dealing primarily with Fox Entertainment Group television and film soundtracks.

Prior to Fox Music, 20th Century Records was its music arm from 1958 to 1982.

What rights did women have in Switzerland in the first few years of the 20th century? - History

Marlene Dumas, ɼhained to the Bed for 15 Years', Lot 30

20th Century & Contemporary Art Evening Sale, 13 February


Gallery Paul Andriesse, Amsterdam
Jack Tilton Gallery, New York
Private Collection (acquired from the above in 1990)


Kunsthalle Bern, The Question of Human Pink, 7 July – 20 August 1989
New York, Jack Tilton Gallery, Lynch to Lucier, 2 - 27 October 1990


Wouter Welling, 'Omtrekkende bewegingen: Citaten uit brieven van Marlene Dumas', Artefactum, vol. 6, no. 27, February-March 1989, p. 33 (illustrated, p. 33)

Catalogue Essay

Chained to the Bed for 15 Years: Marlene Dumas and the Male Nude
Text by Dominic van den Boogerd

The drawing Chained to the Bed for 15 Years, made in 1986-87, marks a significant moment in the development of the work of South-African artist Marlene Dumas: it is the first large size work devoted to the subject of the male nude. It was included in the important solo-exhibition The Question of Human Pink in Bern, Switzerland, in 1989, where it was presented alongside several other drawings and paintings of reclining male and female nudes. The reason why Dumas’ male nudes have not attracted the same amount of attention as her female nudes can only be subject to speculation. That they deserve our attention alltogether is however without doubt.

The present work shows a naked man lying on his back on a sofa. His head is tilted backwards we cannot see his face. His ankles and his left hand are tied to the legs of the bed. The body and the bed take up most part of the image, the scene only just fitting within the frame. The man’s gently curved legs and his delicate feet look elegant and stylised, like those of athletes depicted on antique Greek vases. The torso seems to consist of individual parts: the well-trained musculature of the breast, the tummy which is tense and smooth, the crotch dissolving into a shade of blue. The title of the work, Chained to the Bed for 15 Years, sounds like a sensational headline culled from the Sunday papers, heralding a cheesy story of lust and crime. Fake news is real entertainment.

The image is drawn in fluent lines, rough scratches and crosshatchings in black and brown, as well as lighter colours such as orange, blue and white. There is unrest and nervousness in the way the drawing has been executed. ‘Drawings are closer and quicker in conveying immediate feelings’, Marlene Dumas has stated, adding that drawings are ‘still to be found in toilets, too’ (Marlene Dumas, Sweet Nothings. Notes and Texts, London, 2014, pp. 66 and 73). Expressive drawings on sheets of paper, in washed ink, crayon, pencil, or a combination of graphic techniques, form a large part of Dumas’ internationally renowned oeuvre. The present work clearly reflects the directness and vividness typical for Dumas’ idiosyncratic style of drawing.

Chained to the Bed for 15 Years dates from a period when the artist focused primarily on the possibilities of one motif in particular, that of the reclining nude. In the context of the politicised art world of the 1980s, fuelled by the feminist critique of the so-called Pictures Generation (spearheaded by Cindy Sherman, Barbara Kruger, Jenny Holzer, Barbara Bloom), the representation of the female nude was controversial, to say the least. The naked woman, once the favourite muse of the artist, had become a ‘problem’, as curator Cornelia Butler put it (Cornelia Butler, ‘Painter as Witness’, Measuring Your Own Grave, exh. cat., Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, 2008, p. 63). In the drawing series Defining in the Negative, 1988, Marlene Dumas demonstrated, in a hilarious way, the trouble with casting undressed ladies in art. Next to sketchily drawn nude figures are notes such as ‘I won’t pose for Mr. Salle’, ‘I won’t sleep in Mr. Fischl’s bed’, and ‘I won’t be hung upside down for Mr. Baselitz’. Not that Marlene Dumas had a problem with men who paint naked women, but as there were hardly any female painters active in this area, male artists simply constitued her only frame of reference (Dominic van den Boogerd, ‘Hang-ups and Hangovers in the Work of Marlene Dumas’, Marlene Dumas, London, 1999, pp. 30-85).

Challenging the male-dominated tradition of the female nude in art history, Dumas questions whether or not the nude could still be a meaningful subject for painting today. What made her explorations of the genre exceptional is the fact that she did not limit her subject matter to the ‘second sex’. As one of the very few artists at the time, she focused on the representation of the male nude.

The most debated example perhaps is The Particularity of Nakedness, 1987, residing in Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven – a large and elongated painting representing a naked man. The horizontally stretched out figure, set against blue skies, is carressed by calmness and peacefulness. As he lays there flat on his back, his head sligthly bended towards us, we are able to look straight into his bright blue eyes. The title of the work stems from the essay ‘Ways of Seeing’, 1972, in which art critic John Berger draws a distinction between nudity and nakedness. Referring to Peter Paul Rubens’s portrait of his newlywed wife Helena Fourment (Helena Fourment in a Fur Coat, 1636-1638, also known as Het Pelske [Little Fur Coat], Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna), Berger underlines the values of banality and imperfection: it is the softness of her chubby flesh that prevents her from turning into ‘a nude’. Whereas the nude is somehow impersonal, devoid of sexuality and often employed to embody ideals of high esteem, nakedness is controversial, first and foremost physical, bodily, and charged with eroticism. The somewhat bashful gesture with which Helena wraps the fur around her body to conceal herself from the public eye, pushing up her breasts unintentionally, contributes to the firm impression that Rubens’s depiction is erotic rather than academic, personal instead of generic, offering us ‘the promise of her extraordinary particularity’ (John Berger, ‘Ways of Seeing’, 1972). Clearly, Rubens’ scarcely clad spouse is of the same league as Dumas’ relaxing man, who, precisely because of his nakedness, is shrouded in an air of defencelessness and vulnerability.

Chained to the Bed for 15 Years is the first of many larger works questioning the representation of masculine nudity. The source for this work can be found in a series of small drawings that Marlene Dumas had produced in 1986. A wooden box, containing 23 graphic works by 23 Dutch artists, De Slagersvriend 1 was the first in a series of art editions initiated by Amsterdam painter Eli Content. The number of copies was strictly limited to the number of participating artists, each individual artist receiving one number of the edition. Marlene Dumas’ contribution to the first portfolio consists of 23 handmade drawings in ink on paper, entitled Cultivated emotion – the art lover. Each one of them depicts a naked man, reclining on a bed, looking in ecstasy to a framed work of art on the wall. In these rapidly sketched, cartoonish drawings, love for art is linked to sexual ecstasy.

The particular pose of the reclining man goes back to a reproduction of a classic sculpture which Marlene Dumas holds in her image archives since many years. It is a photograph of the Barberini Faun, 220 BC, a life-size marble statue that is permanently displayed in the Glypthothek in Munich. The sculpture is either a Greek original or a Roman copy of high quality, though its present form might largely be the result of successive restorations. Nudity in Greek art was of course nothing new the blatant sexuality of this reclining faun however is unrivaled. Apparently drunk or intoxicated, his wantonly spread legs focus all attention on his genitals. Marlene Dumas captures the eroticism of the male nude, mostly absent in feminist art, but undeniably present in the work of artists such as Jean Cocteau and David Hockney (note that Dumas’ The Particularity of Nakedness has been criticised for being a ‘homosexual painting’). Dumas renders the chin and the throat of the reclining man as seen from below, a viewpoint similar to the camera-angle of many shots in Andy Warhol’s film Sleep, 1964, registering his lover John Giorno sleeping naked in a bed.

Since 1988, the male nude has reappeared in Dumas’ work more than once: in the many drawings of (In Search of) The Perfect Lover, 1994, in the exhibition Youth and Other Demons at Gallery Koyanagi, Tokyo, 1996, in the series of drawings referred to collectively as Erotic Room, 1998, Museum für Moderne Kunst, Frankfurt, and in several paintings from the notorious MD-light series, 1999-2000. If the depicted men are sexually attractive, there is often a sleazyness to them – many are modelled after photographs of rent boys, male prostitutes, strippers and porn actors. Most recently, the male nude featured in Dumas’ acclaimed series of ink wash-drawings illustrating William Shakespeare’s Venus and Adonis, exhibited at David Zwirner Gallery in New York, 2018 – much to the surprise of visitors, unaware of the fact that Dumas’ naked Adonis has a history. A history initiated by Chained to the Bed for 15 Years.

Dominic van den Boogerd is an Amsterdam-based art critic and tutor at De Ateliers. Among many publications in art magazines and exhibition catalogues, he co-authored the Phaidon monograph on Marlene Dumas.

Artist Biography

Marlene Dumas

Marlene Dumas was born in Cape Town, South Africa, and raised on her family&rsquos vineyard in the countryside. After beginning her art degree at the University of Cape Town, she decided to continue her studies in the Netherlands: the country where she&rsquod build her career as an artist, and still lives today. In 1995, she represented the Netherlands at the Venice Biennale.

Dumas is best known as a painter, using both oil and watercolor. She typically works from a reference photograph, which could be purchased, from her own camera roll or collected from print media. Her work focuses on the human body, and though figurative, she often distorts her subjects with loose, painterly brushstrokes to make plain their emotional state. Deeply influenced by growing up during Apartheid, Dumas&rsquo work centers around themes of repression, misogyny, violence and sexuality. Today, Dumas is one of the most expensive living female artists at auction, with her work first selling for over $1 million in 2004.


The Twentieth Century Fox Presents radio series ⏉] were broadcast between 1936 and 1942. More often than not, the shows were a radio preview featuring a medley of the songs and soundtracks from the latest movie being released into the theaters, much like the modern day movie trailers we now see on TV, to encourage folks to head down to their nearest Picture House.

The radio shows featured the original stars, with the announcer narrating a lead up that encapsulated the performance.


The early arms races of the 20th century escalated into a war which involved many powerful nations: World War I (1914–1918). Technological advancements changed the way war was fought, as new inventions such as machine guns, tanks, chemical weapons, grenades, and military aircraft modified tactics and strategy. After more than four years of trench warfare in western Europe, and 20 million dead, those powers who had formed the Triple Entente (France, Britain, and Russia, later replaced by the United States and joined by Italy) emerged victorious over the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire). In addition to annexing much of the colonial possessions of the vanquished states, the Triple Entente exacted punitive restitution payments from their former foes, plunging Germany in particular into economic depression. The Tsarist regime of His Imperial Majesty Nicholas II was overthrown during the conflict and Russia was transitioned into the first ever communist state, and the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires were dismantled at the war's conclusion.

At the beginning of the period, Britain was the world's most powerful nation [ 3 ] having acted as the world's policeman for the past century. Fascism, a movement which grew out of post-war angst and which accelerated during the Great Depression of the 1930s, gained momentum in Italy, Germany and Spain in the 1920s and 1930s, culminating in World War II (1939–1945), sparked by Nazi Germany's aggressive expansion at the expense of its neighbors. Meanwhile, Japan had rapidly transformed itself into a technologically advanced industrial power. Its military expansion into eastern Asia and the Pacific Ocean culminated in a surprise attack on the United States, bringing it into World War II. After having had several years of dramatic military success, Germany was defeated in 1945, having been repelled and invaded by the Soviet Union from the east and invaded from the west by the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Free France. The war ended with the dropping of two atomic bombs on Japan. Japan later became a U.S. ally with a powerful economy based on consumer goods and trade. Germany was divided between the western powers and the Soviet Union all areas recaptured by the Soviet Union (East Germany and eastward) were essentially transitioned into Soviet puppet states under communist rule. Meanwhile, western Europe was influenced by the American Marshall Plan and made a quick economic recovery, becoming major allies of the United States under capitalist economies and relatively democratic governments.

World War II left about 60 million people dead. When the conflict ended in 1945, the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as very powerful nations. Allies during the war, they soon became hostile to one other as the competing ideologies of communism and democratic capitalism occupied Europe, divided by the Iron Curtain and the Berlin Wall. The military alliances headed by these nations (NATO in North America and western Europe the Warsaw Pact in eastern Europe) were prepared to wage total war with each other throughout the Cold War (1947–91). The period was marked by a new arms race, and nuclear weapons were produced in the tens of thousands, sufficient to end most human life on the planet had a large-scale nuclear exchange ever occurred. The very size of the nuclear arsenal on both sides is believed by many historians to have staved off an inevitable war between the two, as the consequences of any attack were too great to bear. The policy of unleashing a massive nuclear attack, knowing a massive nuclear counterattack would be forthcoming, was known as mutually assured destruction (MAD). Although the Soviet Union and the United States never directly entered military conflict with each other, several proxy wars, such as the Korean War (1950–1953) and the Vietnam War (1957–1975), were waged as the United States implemented its worldwide "containment" policy against communism.

After World War II, most of the European-colonized world in Africa and Asia gained independence in a process of decolonization. This, and the drain of the two world wars, caused Europe to lose much of its long-held power. [ citation needed ] Meanwhile, the wars empowered several nations, including the UK, U.S., Russia, China and Japan, to exert a strong influence over many world affairs. American culture spread around the world with the advent of Hollywood, Broadway, rock and roll, pop music, fast food, big-box stores, and the hip-hop lifestyle. British culture continued to influence world culture, including the "British Invasion" into American music, leading many top rock bands (such as Swedish ABBA) to sing in English. The western world and parts of Asia enjoyed a post-World War II economic boom. After the Soviet Union collapsed under internal pressure in 1991, the communist governments of the Eastern bloc were also dismantled, followed by rocky transitions into market economies.

Following World War II the United Nations was established as an international forum in which the world's nations could get together and discuss issues diplomatically. It has enacted resolutions on such topics as the conduct of warfare, environmental protection, international sovereignty, and human rights. Peacekeeping forces consisting of troops provided by various countries, in concert with various United Nations and other aid agencies, have helped to relieve famine, disease, and poverty, and to suppress some local armed conflicts. Europe slowly united, economically and, in some ways, politically, into what eventually became the European Union, which consisted of 15 European countries by the end of the 20th century.

In approximately the last third of the century, concern about humankind's impact on the Earth's environment caused environmentalism to become a major citizen movement. In many countries, especially in Europe, the movement was channeled into politics partly through Green parties, though awareness of the problem permeated societies. By the end of the 20th century, some progress had been made in cleaning up the environment though pollution continued apace. [ citation needed ] Increasing awareness of global warming began in the 1980s, commencing several decades of social and political debate.

Medical science and the Green Revolution in agriculture enabled the world's population to grow from about 1.6 billion to about 6.0 billion. This rapid population increase quickly became a major concern and directly caused or contributed to several global issues, including conflict, poverty, major environmental issues, and severe overcrowding in some areas.

The nature of innovation and change

Due to continuing industrialization and expanding trade, many significant changes of the 20th century were, directly or indirectly, economic and technological in nature. Inventions such as the light bulb, the automobile, and the telephone in the late 19th century, followed by supertankers, airliners, motorways, radio, television, antibiotics, frozen food, computers and microcomputers, the Internet, and mobile telephones and many other things, affected the quality of life for great numbers. Scientific research, engineering professionalization and technological development was the force behind vast changes in everyday life.

Social change

At the turn of the 19th to 20th century, discrimination based on race and sex still existed in general society. Although the atlantic slave trade had ended in the 19th century, the fight for equality for Africans in the white society of North America, Europe, and South Africa continued. During the century, the social taboo of sexism fell. By the end of the 20th century, women had as many rights as men in most parts of the world and not only did general society accept equal rights for members of other races but most people frowned at racism. [ 4 ] In the 1970s, the term Speciesism was coined as people begun to question human's natural discrimination to other species. Also during the late 20th century, movements for GLBT rights and equality for all continued into the 21st century.

Child Star Syndrome

And with all of that, Shirley also had gotten married to film actor John Agar in 1945, with whom she had their daughter, Linda Susan. But it was not a happy union with the two of them getting divorced in 1949 and Shirley being awarded custody of Linda.

Observes Kasson, “Diana Serra Cary, who was known as Baby Peggy, was a major star of the silent era from 1921 to 1923. She died earlier this year at 101. She, more than any other star of that era, wrote very sensitively about the dilemma of child stars and their families, including how emotionally damaging it could be, because the child star is also a child laborer. We might also say that she is fulfilling the emotional needs of her own family as well as their material needs. In the case of Shirley Temple, she’s doing that on multiple fronts. She’s supposed to cheer people up, but also really keep the family afloat. She’s the kid with the Midas touch and that’s a kind of power that’s very destabilizing in the family political and psychological economy.

“She was going down the career of the former child star: disastrous first marriage, a has-been in her films by the late 40s, her husband John Agar was abusive to her, because he resented her whole prominence and so on. He was drinking and womanizing and physically assaulting her. And then she met Charles Black, who said he’d never seen a Shirley Temple film. She liked that, as well as the fact he was tall, handsome a war hero.”

Shirley had met World War II Navy Intelligence officer and Silver Star recipient Charles Alden Black in January 1950, the two of them getting married in December of that year. In a way, Black helped her to get a little more control in her life, beginning by having her investigate how much she was worth from all of those hit films (for the record, he was rich, so it wasn’t like he was a gold digger).

Chapter 2 History

Another wave of Germanic invasions in the 8th century. These invaders came from Scandinavia.
1.In the 9th century, they conquered and settled the islands around Scotland and some coastal regions in Ireland.
2.Their conquest was halted when they were defeated by King Alfred (of the Saxon Kingdom of Wessex).
3.As a result: their settlement was limited to the north and east of the country.

1. canada,australia,new Zealand(british settler becomes major population)
2. India
3. Large part of Africa(not south Africa)
4.A numerous smaller areas and island
5. Ireland( british culture became predominant in ireland

Not only political reforms, but also reforms concerning "human rights". Slavery and laws against people because of their religion were abolished.

Also, laws were made to protect workers and their rights.

Writers and intellectuals of this period protested against the horrors of this new style of life (e.g Dickens) or simply ignore it.

Many,especially, the romantic poets praises the beauties of the countryside and the virtue of country life

2.the governments introduction of new taxation
was opposed so absolutely by the House of Lords, that even Parliament (the foundation of the political system) seemed to have an uncertain future

First Home Rule Bill
This bill proposed that :

1.A separate parliament and government should be set up in Dublin.

2.This parliament would control all Irish affairs except defense issues, foreign relations, trade and issues relating to customs and excise. Westminster would deal with these issues.

3.Westminster would no longer have any Irish MP's in it.

However, many Irishmen felt that Home Rule did not go far enough. They were worried that there would be no Irish MPs in Westminster to defend Irish interests. Protestants in Ireland, especially those in Ulster, were worried that the Parliament would be mainly made up of Catholics.

The Bill was defeated.
Second Home Rule Bill
Gladstone again tried to introduce Home Rule for Ireland but was again defeated.

Third Home Rule Bill
The proposals for Home Rule in Ireland were approved by Parliament. Home Rule was to become law in 1914.

1 million protestant in provinces of ulster in the northn of the country were violently opposed to it- they did not want to belong to a country dominated by catholics.These Protestants formed a majority in 6 of the 9 counties of Ulster (65%).

1. In 1920, the British government divided the county between the Catholic south and the Protestant six counties, giving each part some control over its internal affairs.

2.But this was no longer enough for the south. They wanted complete independence. Support for this had grown because of the British government's great suppression of the "Easter Rising (1916)".

Watch the video: H ιστορία πίσω από τον αγώνα των γυναικών για ίσα δικαιώματα (January 2022).