History Podcasts

Consolidation - History

Consolidation - History

Consolidation

The 1880's and 1890's were year of consolidation in the American railroads. They were the years of the great financiers such Jay Gould and JP Morgan, made fortunes buying and selling railroad stocks. Most of all however, they were the years that the rails became the backbone of American Commerce. You could now ship anything anywhere in the United States is a matter of days.. No longer was a producer limited to selling products in his city or even in his region, but the United States had become one national market.
It was also the beginning of the age of great name trains.


When you run the consolidation process or delete the consolidation history in Microsoft Dynamics AX 2012, you experience slow performance.

This problem occurs because the following reasons:

When a dimension attribute value is created through the consolidation process, the value is not committed until the process is complete. In this situation, when other consolidation batches in the process require the same dimension attribute value, they have to wait until the first batch is completed.

The deletion process is not set-based, that causes unnecessary SQL queries.

The multithreading functionality is not enabled in the consolidation process.


Trump’s FCC Has Paved the Way For a Giant, Local Fox News

BY John Light | May 10, 2017

Earlier this week, we wrote about a pending deal between Sinclair Broadcasting and Tribune Media. Sinclair hopes to buy Tribune, a move that will allow the company to broadcast news to 70 percent of Americans.

But the deal has raised eyebrows. The company is notoriously close with Trump, and also favored George W. Bush when he was president. The company’s DC office produces conservative commentary and news segments that paint Republicans in a favorable light, and distributes them to local stations around the country. Some worry that Sinclair hopes to create a competitor to Fox News, operating out of local television stations across America.

If the deal does go through — anti-trust regulators and the FCC will have to approve it — it will only have been possible because earlier this year, Trump’s FCC chair Ajit Pai relaxed rules preventing media consolidation. Like much the FCC deals with — net neutrality, internet privacy — media consolidation is a dull-sounding topic that is nonetheless very important. It has a direct hand in the quality of American journalism, and it dictates how accountable that journalism is to its audience.

We put together an explainer on the topic. Here’s what you need to know.


What is media consolidation?

Media consolidation is the concentration of ownership of our news sources into the hands of fewer and fewer corporations.


Why should I care about it?

One of the few things the American people agree on is that the mainstream media is woefully inadequate. According to a 2016 Gallup poll, only about 20 percent of Americans have confidence in the television news and in newspapers. Donald Trump effectively harnessed this distrust during his campaign, and still attacks the media before his fans when he wants to prompt applause.

Americans recognize that the media does not represent their views, and media consolidation is largely to blame. In the early 1980s, journalist Ben Bagdikian calculated that the majority of US media was held by just 50 corporations — and the number has dropped to only a handful since then.

This means that national and even local news coverage priorities are dictated from afar —
and by business leaders, not by journalists on the ground. It means that as print and broadcast journalism struggles to remain profitable in the face of free, online alternatives, hard financial decisions that affect reporters and the stories they tell will be made in corporate boardrooms. And it assures that some issues — issues in which corporate America is uninterested — go uncovered, while some voices — particularly female, minority and immigrant voices — rarely make it into print or onto the airwaves.


How did it happen?


Contents

Consolidation Coal Company (1860–1991) Edit

Consol Energy was originally created in 1860 as the Consolidation Coal Company after several small mining companies in Western Maryland decided to combine their operations. The company was formally established in 1864 and headquartered in Cumberland, Maryland for the first 85 years (1864–1945), where the company became the largest bituminous coal company in the eastern United States. [6]

Western Maryland's coal production rose about 1 million short tons in 1865, exceeded 4 million short tons by the turn of the century, and reached an all-time high of about 6 million short tons in 1907. A small amount of the coal production in the early 1900s was premium smithing coal (as in blacksmith) that was specially processed and delivered in boxcars to customers throughout the United States and Canada. In 1945, Consolidation Coal Company was merged with Pittsburgh Coal Company and its headquarters were moved to Western Pennsylvania. [7]

With growing demand for natural gas in the U.S. following World War II, Consolidation Coal Company was acquired by the Continental Oil Company, or Conoco, in 1966. [7] By the mid-1970s, Consolidation Coal Company operated 56 mines and employed nearly 20,000 miners. [6] In 1981, Conoco along with Consolidation Coal Company was acquired by DuPont, which then sold some of its coal mining interests in Pennsylvania to the German energy company, Rheinbraun A.G. [7]

Consol Energy (1991–present) Edit

Looking to invest in coal reserves in North America, Rheinbraun A.G offered Dupont stakes in coal mines and $890 million in 1991 to join in an equal part joint venture creating Consol Energy. [8] Despite the cost of coal dropping in the 1990s, Consol's long-term contracts and investments in longwall mining techniques allowed the company to remain competitive. [6] In 1998, Dupont sold the large majority of its stake in Consol, leaving it with only a 6 percent share and Rheinbraun A.G with a 94 percent interest. [9] Consol also acquired Rochester & Pittsburgh Coal Company in 1998. [10]

In 1999, Consol underwent a public offering (NYSE: CNX) [11] in order to pay down some of the debt the company had incurred with the majority buy-out from Dupont and the acquisition of Rochester & Pittsburgh Coal Company. Due to uncertainty surrounding demand for coal in the early 2000s, Consol began to place a greater emphasis on diversification, primarily into natural gas. Consol's first major natural gas investment was through the acquisition of MCN Energy Group Inc.'s methane reserves in southwestern Virginia for $160 million. [12] In 2001, Consol acquired Conoco Inc.'s coalbed methane gas production assets in southwestern Virginia. [13]

Consol subsidiaries CNX Ventures and CNX Land Resources also began diversification efforts during this time into methane gas and timber and farming. In 2006, Consol spun off its subsidiary CNX Gas as a standalone company, but retained 83 percent of the new company's shares. [14] On June 28, 2006,Consol Energy entered the S&P 500 replacing Knight-Ridder. [15] In 2007, CNX Gas also began investing heavily in natural gas exploration in the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania. In 2010, Consol acquired Dominion Resources Inc.'s natural gas production and exploration assets for 3.74 billion dollars, which included nearly 500,000 acres of Marcellus potential, tripling Consol's position in the Marcellus to approximately 750,000 acres. Consol also acquired all of the remaining publicly owned shares of CNX Gas for a cash payment of $991 million. [14]

In 2010, Consol was also named by Forbes magazine as one of the "100 Most Trustworthy Companies." [16] In 2011, Consol entered into two separate joint venture agreements to expedite its natural gas production. The first, an agreement with Noble Energy was to jointly develop the company's 663,350 Marcellus Shale acres in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. [17] The second joint agreement, with Hess Corporation, jointly explored and developed Consol's nearly 200,000 Utica Shale acres in Ohio. [18] Consol also began an expansion of its Baltimore Terminal in 2011 to increase capacity from 14 million to 16 million tons to increase its revenue from sales of its metallurgical coal. [19]

In 2017, Consol Energy Inc. spun off from CNX Resources Group. Officially announced on November 29, 2017, this move marked the start of Consol Energy Inc. operating as an independent, publicly traded company. [4]

Consol has begun to inject CO2 into geologic formations which is being practiced in 2012 in the petroleum industry. However it is impossible to know the greater impact this will have. [20]

Divisions and areas of business Edit

Consol Energy operates as a producer of coal, primarily for electric power generation. Consol also maintains support services including Baltimore Marine Terminal and Land Division.

Consol Energy's flagship operation is the Pennsylvania Mining Complex, which includes three large underground mines capable of producing approximately 28.5 million tons of coal per year. Consol's coal division [5] received the U.S. Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining National Award for Excellence in Surface Mining for the company's innovative reclamation practices in 2002, 2003, and 2004. [21]

Consol's Gas Division deals with natural gas exploration, development and production, producing nearly 128 billion cubic feet of coalbed methane in 2010. With the acquisition of the exploration and production business of Dominion Resources in 2010, the company has access to over 3.7 trillion cubic feet of proved clean-burning natural gas reserves in Pennsylvania, West Virginia and Ohio, including coalbed methane and shale beds. The company currently has nearly 13,000 net producing wells. [22]

As the owner of more than 430,000 surface acres in the U.S. and Canada, Consol Energy has a Land Division that oversees various projects, including selling reserve land that the company does not develop, land donation and conservation projects. Consol Energy has also been recognized for its reclamation efforts by national and state governments and has worked in partnership with several conservation groups on land reclamation projects. [6] Consol's Baltimore Marine Terminal provides coal transshipment services from rail cars to ocean transport ships. [7]

Consol's Water Division is involved in water purification with a focus on treating wastewater produced as a byproduct of hydraulic fracturing. The company operates reverse osmosis water purification plants and has a minority interest in a company that develops solar-powered water purification systems which, as of July 2012 [update] , was conducting a pilot test at one of Consol's gas drilling sites. [23] [24] Consol also maintained the Fairmont Supply Company, dedicated to the sale and distribution of mining services and equipment. However, in 2015, Consol sold that Company. Additionally, the company operates the largest privately owned research and development facility in the industry that is devoted exclusively to coal and energy utilization and production. [25]

Financials Edit

In 2018, Consol Energy had an annual revenue of $1.53 billion.[8] Consol Energy was ranked number 428 on the Fortune 500 list in 2011. [26]


New Feature – Consolidation History

We always listen to the feedback of our customers. Based on our opinion, it is the best way how to improve our service, listen to the feedback of our customers. Today we would like to introduce you a new Planet Express feature which has been developed based on the feedback from our customer. This new function is called Consolidation History.

If you are a power user and consolidate a lot of packages, sometimes it is a headache to have all your consolidations well organized. To help you keep an eye on all your consolidations, we developed this new function. Thanks to that, you can see all your consolidations in one place. See below how it looks:

consolidation history

To access the list of your consolidation history, just login into your account, click on Packages/ Consolidation History. And more over – you can also see detail of each consolidation ?


Reforms

Shenzong (reigned 1067–85) was a reform emperor. Originally a prince reared outside the palace, familiar with social conditions and devoted to serious studies, he did not come into the line of imperial succession until adoption had put his father on the throne before him. Shenzong responded vigorously (and rather unexpectedly, from the standpoint of many bureaucrats) to the problems troubling the established order, some of which were approaching crisis proportions. Keeping above partisan politics, he made the scholar-poet Wang Anshi his chief councillor and gave him full backing to make sweeping reforms. Known as the New Laws, or New Policies, these reform measures attempted drastic institutional changes. In sum, they sought administrative effectiveness, fiscal surplus, and military strength. Wang’s famous “ Ten Thousand Word Memorial” outlined the philosophy of the reforms. Contrary to conventional Confucian views, it upheld assertive governmental roles, but its ideal remained basically Confucian: economic prosperity would provide the social environment essential to moral well-being.

Never before had the government undertaken so many economic activities. The emperor empowered Wang to institute a top-level office for fiscal planning, which supervised the Finance Commission, previously beyond the jurisdiction of the chief councillor. The government squarely faced the reality of a rapidly spreading money economy by increasing the supply of currency. The state became involved in trading, buying specific products of one area for resale elsewhere (thereby facilitating the exchange of goods), stabilizing prices whenever and wherever necessary, and making a profit itself. This did not displace private trading activities. On the contrary, the government extended loans to small urban and regional traders through state pawnshops—a practice somewhat like modern government banking but unheard-of at the time. Far more important, if not controversial, the government made loans at the interest rate, low for the period, of 20 percent to the whole peasantry during the sowing season, thus assuring their farming productivity and undercutting their dependency upon usurious loans from the well-to-do. The government also maintained granaries in various cities to ensure adequate supplies on hand in case of emergency need. The burden on wealthy and poor alike was made more equitable by a graduated tax scale based on a reassessment of the size and the productivity of the landholdings. Similarly, compulsory labour was converted to a system of graduated tax payments, which were used to finance a hired-labour service program that at least theoretically controlled underemployment in farming areas. Requisition of various supplies from guilds was also replaced by cash assessments, with which the government was to buy what it needed at a fair price.

Wang’s reforms achieved increased military power as well. To remedy the Song’s military weakness and to reduce the immense cost of a standing professional army, the villages were given the duty of organizing militias, under the old name of baojia, to maintain local order in peacetime and to serve as army reserves in wartime. To reinforce the cavalry, the government procured horses and assigned them to peasant households in northern and northwestern areas. Various weapons were also developed. As a result of these efforts, the empire eventually scored some minor victories along the northwestern border.

The gigantic reform program required an energetic bureaucracy, which Wang attempted to create—with mixed results—by means of a variety of policies: promoting a nationwide state school system establishing or expanding specialized training in such utilitarian professions as the military, law, and medicine, which were neglected by Confucian education placing a strong emphasis on supportive interpretations of Classics, some of which Wang himself supplied rather dogmatically demoting and dismissing dissenting officials (thus creating conflicts in the bureaucracy) and providing strong incentives for better performances by clerical staffs, including merit promotion into bureaucratic ranks.

The magnitude of the reform program was matched only by the bitter opposition to it. Determined criticism came from the groups hurt by the reform measures: large landowners, big merchants, and moneylenders. Noncooperation and sabotage arose among the bulk of the bureaucrats, drawn as they were from the landowning and otherwise wealthy classes. Geographically, the strongest opposition came from the traditionally more conservative northern areas. Ideologically, however, the criticisms did not necessarily coincide with either class background or geographic factors. They were best expressed by many leading scholar-officials, some of whom were northern conservatives while others were brilliant talents from Sichuan. Both the emperor and Wang failed to reckon with the fact that, by its very nature, the entrenched bureaucracy could tolerate no sudden change in the system to which it had become accustomed. It also reacted against the over concentration of power at the top, which neglected the art of distributing and balancing power among government offices, the overexpansion of governmental power in society, and the tendency to apply policies relatively uniformly in a locally diverse empire.

Without directly attacking the emperor, the critics attacked the reformers for deviating from orthodox Confucianism. It was wrong, the opponents argued, for the state to pursue profits, to assume inordinate power, and to interfere in the normal life of the common people. It was often true as charged that the reforms—and the resulting changes in government—brought about the rise of unscrupulous officials, an increase in high-handed abuses in the name of strict law enforcement, unjustified discrimination against many scholar-officials of long experience, intense factionalism, and resulting widespread miseries among the population—all of which were in contradiction to the claims of the reform objectives. Particularly open to criticism was the rigidity of the reform system, which allowed little regional discretion or desirable adjustment for differing conditions in various parts of the empire.

In essence the reforms augmented growing trends toward both absolutism and bureaucracy. Even in the short run, the cost of the divisive factionalism that the reforms generated had disastrous effects. To be fair, Wang was to blame for his overzealous if not doctrinaire beliefs, his low tolerance for criticism, and his persistent support of his followers even when their errors were hardly in doubt. Nonetheless, it was Shenzong himself who was ultimately responsible. Determined to have the reform measures implemented, he ignored loud remonstrances, disregarded friendly appeals to have certain measures modified, and continued the reforms after Wang’s retirement.

The traditional historians, by studying documentary evidence alone, overlooked the fact that scholar-officials rarely openly criticized an absolutist emperor, and they generally echoed the critical views of the conservatives in assigning the blame to Wang—a revisionist Confucian in public, a profound Buddhist practitioner in his old age, and a great poet and essayist.


Consolidation of Germany

This series has six easy 5 minute installments. This first installment: Bismarck’s Central Role.

Introduction
What was more difficult, founding the German Empire or consolidating it? Since the Medieval Age Germany had consisted of many entities of different levels of independence, status, and power. Bringing them all together to make a single state was quite an accomplishment. Getting them to have a common sense of nationality was a slow and difficult process that required greater skill and untiring perseverance

The condition of Germany when William II had just been crowned Emperor was much like that of the United States when independence had been won by the victories of Washington’s army. The separate States had their separate interests, their traditions, their local pride, their jealousy of centralized power and the last of these considerations was the most difficult to master or pacify. One of the plainest lessons of history is that small states within the same natural boundaries must and will ultimately unite, and they find their safety and their highest interest in so doing and it appears strange that this can seldom be accomplished without a struggle. That which was patriotism in the earlier day, devotion to the small country and the limited sovereignty, becomes provincialism when the principalities are combined in an empire. Such combination is certain to come with the progress of civilization, the extension of lines of traffic, the multiplication of industries, and the increase of commerce. To accomplish combination and unification on an old continent, within a single generation, required at once the wisdom of patience and the genius of energy.

This selection is from Prince Bismarck by Charles Lowe . For works benefiting from the latest research see the “More information” section at the bottom of these pages.

Time: 1881-1890
Place: Germany

Berlin Around 1890
Public domain image from Wikipedia.

To create the empire had been a very hard ask, but to consolidate it proved a still harder one. When the first Imperial Parliament was opened at Berlin (March, 1871), Bismarck had almost completed his twentieth year of continuous service to the State, counting from his appointment to the old Diet at Frankfort and during this period of incessant endeavor he had expended the energies of at least a score of ordinary men. But there was still in store for him an equally long period of uninterrupted service as Imperial Chancellor, or major-domo, of the empire. For it was still incumbent on him to rivet the empire which he had raised.

The main reason for this was that he insisted, so to say, upon doing everything himself. The foreign relations of the empire were certainly more than enough to engage his undivided attention, but his was the chief directing hand in the field of domestic affairs as well. In his own person he formed a ministry of all the talents. As Chancellor he was the sole responsible Minister of the empire, and champion of the Imperial Constitution, which had simply been adopted from that of the North German Con federation to suit the new order of things. And, on the whole, it was not ill-suited to the peculiar wants and political character of the German people. The National Legislature might be described as of the bi-cameral kind, with no separate sovereign veto over it the Bundesrath, or Federal Council, forming the Upper Chamber, and the Reichstag, or Imperial Parliament, the Lower. The former was composed of delegates, or plenipotentiaries, from the Federal Sovereigns, presided over by the Chancellor while the latter represented the German people, the deputies being returned by universal suffrage in about the proportion of one to one hundred thousand of the population, making the total number three hundred ninety-seven. The assent of both bodies was equally necessary to the passing of a law, which might originate with either though, as a matter of fact, the birthplace of bills was invariably the Federal Council. The Popular Assembly could reject a bill as absolutely as the Sovereign Council, and, when the two had once adopted a measure, it was beyond the power of the Emperor to veto it, for the Kaiser was made only the executive head of the Federal Council, and could exercise no sovereign rights apart from it in his Imperial capacity. The German Emperor always has been popularly supposed to be a kind of military autocrat, but, as a matter of fact, there is no sovereign in all Europe so constitutionally tied down and circumscribed as he. For example, it is often feared that his impetuosity might cause him to plunge his people into war. But the Emperor cannot declare an aggressive war without the consent of his fellow- sovereigns. He is only the executor of the combined will of the Reichstag and the Bundesrath, and it has often happened that he has had to carry out decisions of the latter body which, as King of Prussia, he had unsuccessfully opposed. The locating of the Imperial Supreme Court of Justice at Leipsic, instead of at Berlin, is a case in point, when Prussia was outvoted in the Federal Council by a majority of two, much to the disgust and indignation of Bismarck, though, as Chancellor, he had to bend to the decision. No student of modern German history ever can attain to a clear and just apprehension of his subject until he realizes the fact that the German Emperor is anything but an autocrat, and that the vicarious, despotic power of his Chancellor is only such as has been conferred upon him by what is probably one of the most even-balanced and beneficent constitutions in all Europe. In saying this, I would only be understood as meaning that it was peculiarly well adapted to the stage of political development reached by the German people.

Yet there were many who thought that the person of Bismarck himself formed much too prominent a part in the executive machinery of the Imperial constitution, as witness the following letter from his war colleague in the Prussian Cabinet, Count von Roon, to a Conservative leader:

The Hermit of Varzin wishes to do everything himself, and yet issues the most stringent orders that he is not to be disturbed. It is enough to drive to despair an old man who would fain go to bed with a quiet mind. If Bismarck does not make all haste to bring together a first House, and the most necessary Ministers for the empire, history will one day pronounce a severe judgment upon him. Living from hand to mouth will not do for long, ho ever dexterous and strong the hand, and however eloquent and keen the tongue. God knows that nobody wishes him better than I, as I am, so to speak, the shield on which he was uplifted. But he has too few sincere friends, and listens too much to his enemies, of whom those who idolize him are the worst. It is because I have so high an opinion of him that I should like him to be different in many respects.”

This was written after Bismarck had been only about two years in harness as Chancellor of the empire and Prussian Premier, and his pluralist duties had been of the most Herculean character. His war with Rome had already broken out, and he had also been busy garnering the results of his war with France. To him fell the organization of Alsace-Lorraine as a Reichsland, first under a kind of dictatorship, or “kindly despotism, “and then as a quasi-autonomous province duly represented in the Reichstag.

His policy toward the reconquered provinces may be briefly described. He trusted to gradual recognition on the part of the in habitants that, on the whole, “the rule of the Germans was more benevolent and humane than that of the French, and that, under their new masters, they enjoyed a much greater degree of communal and individual freedom.” In annexing Alsace-Lorraine, his primary object, he said, was not to make the inhabitants happy and contented, but to secure Germany against future aggression, and their happiness lay in their own hands. A good deal of recalcitrancy was shown by these inhabitants in the earlier years of their new lot, but by 1879 Bismarck was able to announce that he was quite willing to confer on the provinces the “highest degree of independence compatible with the military security of the empire” and after this, the appointment of a Stadtholder, or Viceroy, in the person of Marshal Manteuffel, relieved the Chancellor of all direct responsibility for the fate of the Reichsland.


Group Reporting with SAP S/4HANA

SAP S/4HANA Finance for group reporting version 1909 combines the best of all existing consolidation solutions into one solution that customers can deploy either on-premise or in the cloud. In a nutshell, this is the next-generation consolidation solution integrated in the SAP S/4HANA platform that offers native integration with accounting, planning, and reporting.

The following group reporting 1909 features are differentiators for the product.

Continuous Accounting

Efficient, tactical approach to managing the accounting cycle more strategically. With a simplified architecture and full data integration, group reporting supports accounting’s goal of moving toward continuous accounting through the following:

  • A unified reporting framework for both local and group currencies.
  • Leverage of all the details of SAP S/4HANA where applicable.

Group Reporting Platform

Ability to report consolidated actuals in near or real time. Consolidated reporting of financials is made easy through a simplified group reporting platform that has the following:

  • The capability to consolidate actuals, plan, and different one-off simulations or what-if scenarios.
  • Full integration with SAP Analytics Cloud and application programming interfaces (APIs) to ingest or extract data.
  • Ability to run and execute all standard consolidation tasks, including currency translation, intercompany elimination, and investment consolidation.

Engineered for the Cloud

Capable of cloud portability and use on a cloud architecture. The next generation of consolidation solutions will be built on the cloud, but group reporting is architected in a way that can be supported on premise while also being cloud portable with the following:

  • Dedicated cloud releases that offer the latest product innovations to consumers quickly.
  • Integrated reporting capability with SAP Analytics Cloud and SAP Analysis for Microsoft Office.

Growth and Consolidation


Fred Jones, FCPS school bus driver, c.1941, courtesy of Lee Hubbard

The history of Fairfax County and its schools from 1930 to the 1950s can be summarized in one word: Growth.

Within a time frame of twenty years, the population of the county quadrupled from 25,000 to almost 99,000 people. Franklin D. Roosevelt's presidency was the major reason for this rapid growth, as with the new administration came increases in federal programs and bureaus. With those increases came the additional employees to administer new programs and to staff the new bureaus.

The End of the One-Room Schoolhouse

Enrollment growth and the introduction of school buses changed the character of the communities the one-room schoolhouses served, and the lives of the children within them. Students who had once walked to a local, often one-room schoolhouse, now rode a bus to a larger “consolidated school” where they were taught in separate grades. Some of these large, brick school buildings with modernized amenities, like indoor plumbing, are still in use today. Progressive educators viewed buses as a step toward modernizing and consolidating more students into one building.

Post-war Enrollment Growth

Following World War II, rapid population growth in Fairfax County led to a steady rise in the school system’s student population. In 1948, 12,118 students were enrolled in FCPS. Over the next 25 years, the school system would add roughly 6,000 new students per year.

FCPS took over the education of students with mental disabilities from a parent-organized cooperative in 1953. The parent group had begun the program in 1950, using whatever space could be found to educate their children, but eventually asked FCPS to take control of the program.

Integration

Like other school districts in the country, Fairfax County Public Schools was a segregated district from its creation to the middle of the 20th century. In 1954 the Supreme Court ruling Brown v. Board of Education changed segregation laws in this country. Luther Jackson School in Falls Church opened at the same time the Supreme Court ruling prevailed to end racial segregation. This was the first high school for African Americans and remained a high school until it was converted to an integrated middle school in 1965. The integration movement of the schools did not gather traction in FCPS until 1960. When the school system desegregated the African-American schools, the buildings were closed and re-purposed as special education sites.


Consolidate

Hong Kong just delivered a masterclass on how authoritarian regimes distort facts and erase history in a bid to consolidate state control.

Chains like Target and Walmart are benefiting from consumers’ growing tendency to consolidate shopping trips to stores where they can buy everything and minimize time in stores.

Then, in an executive reshuffling in 2017, Levien was promoted to chief operating officer, consolidating power on the business side and establishing herself as the clear internal candidate to be named as the next CEO.

The planemaker announced last month that it was ending production of the 747 jumbo jet and studying whether to consolidate production of the 787 Dreamliner, which is manufactured in South Carolina and Washington state.

The effect was larger among Republicans hoping to consolidate Republican power.

We eliminated him because we just needed to consolidate for film.

In anticipation of 2016 the GOP had better consolidate its goods and reinvent its brand.

“We must consolidate , but not for wars or conflicts, but for hard work in the name of Russia and for Russia,” he said.

He wants to consolidate services, closing police and fire stations if necessary.

As U.S. soldiers left Iraq at the end of 2011, Maliki then began to consolidate his power.

This might involve a month and in the meantime the enemy would have time to consolidate his position.

They simply remembered the wishes of their fathers and saw it was best to consolidate their huge commercial interests.

We must join to our doctrine political interests which will consolidate it, and keep together the materiel of my armies.

Not being armed, we fell back to consolidate losses instead of gains.

Spain was anxious for peace, and desired to consolidate it by separating England from France and Holland.


Watch the video: Ιωάννης Μεταξάς - Ελλήνων Πρόσωπα (January 2022).