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Boulton and Paul P.66

Boulton and Paul P.66

Boulton & Paul P.66

The Boulton & Paul P.66 was a design for a general purpose aircraft, to replace the numerous Westland Wapati and Fairey Gordon biplanes.

The P.66 was designed in response to specification G.4/31 of June 1931 (modified in September 1931), which called for an aircraft capable of serving as an army co-operation aircraft, torpedo bomber, dive bomber, light day and night bomber, photographic aircraft, reconnaissance aircraft and casualty evacuation aircraft.

The P.66 was a streamlined shoulder-wing monoplane that would have been powered by either a Jupiter FFAM or XFBM or Panther radial engines, each using a Townend ring. The pilot's open cockpit was placed just in front of the wing. In order to incease the ease of maintenance the horn balanced rudder and elevators were interchangeable.

A wind tunnel model of the P.66 was built, but no prototype followed. The G.4/31 contest was won by the Vickers 253, but this was also rejected for production, and eventually the contract went to the Vickers Wellesley.

Whatever Happened to the Twelve Apostles?

Read how each of the apostles spread out to minister and evangelize and how many of the apostles died for their faith.

The apostles were not the kind of group you might have expected Jesus to send forth on his mission to reach the world. There was nothing special or spectacular about them. The twelve apostles were just ordinary working men. But Jesus formed them into the backbone of the church and gave them the most extraordinary task imaginable: calling the entire world, including the mightiest empire ever known, to repentance and faith in the risen Christ. You can be sure that any educated, first-century Roman citizen would have laughed at any prediction that within three centuries the Christian faith would be the official faith of the empire.

Many wonder how the 12 apostles died, but The New Testament tells of the fate of only two of the apostles: Judas, who betrayed Jesus and then went out and hanged himself, and James the son of Zebedee, who was executed by Herod about 44 AD (Acts 12:2). Read how each of the apostles spread out to minister and evangelize and how many of the apostles died for their faith.


Joseph Mappin founded in 1810 a trade as engraver in Fargate, Sheffield.
This concern passed to one of his sons and finally the engraving business came to an end.
Another son of Joseph Mappin (he too called Joseph) carried on the business of the cutler in Sheffield (Norfolk Street).
He died in 1841 and till 1846 the firm was managed by his son Frederick Thorpe Mappin who took his brothers in the business and the firm became Joseph Mappin & Co.
In 1846 the business was amalgamated with that of William Samson & Sons changing to Mappin Brothers.
Its partners were the founder's four sons, Frederick Thorpe Mappin, Edward Mappin, Joseph Charles Mappin and John Newton Mappin.
In 1850 John Newton Mappin retired from Mappin Brothers and established a new firm originally trading under the style Mappin & Co, changed in 1863 in Mappin & Webb after an agreement to avoid confusion between the two firms' names.
Mappin Brothers continued to be advertised as the original firm, but in 1902 it was closed after being amalgamated with Mappin & Webb Ltd.
In 1963 Mappin & Webb was amalgamated in British Silverware Ltd together with Elkington & Co Ltd and Walker & Hall Ltd.
For a line of its silverplate production Mappin & Webb used the trade mark Princes Plate. Mappin and Webb silversmiths, factory in Sheffield was closed in 1971.
At the present Mappin & Webb is a subsidiary of Sears Holding Ltd.

Nurses as Parish Contractors

Complaints about nursing standards should not deflect us from the important role they played in delivering parish care. In a recent article charting the evolution of the system in the parish of St Martin in the Fields, Jeremy Boulton has described a sophisticated network of nurses, running houses that could accommodate tens of child and sick paupers. According to Boulton, in the fifteen years prior to the establishment of a workhouse in St Martin's in 1725, between 11 per cent and 18 per cent of all parish poor relief expenditure (between £457 and £842 per year) went to approximately nine individual nurses. Some nurses received upwards of two hundred and forty pounds a year in payment for the care of the poor. A large, but by no means the largest nursing home, run by a Nurse Pomfrett, for example, submitted ten bills in 1724/5 requesting payment under 273 different headings, itemizing the care of twenty-three individual paupers, and expecting £181 in payment. In effect, Nurse Pomfrett was running a long-stay nursing home on a scale equivalent to a small parish workhouse. 4

Other parishes, such as St James Westminster and St Giles in the Fields, were similarly investing heavily in nursing care prior to the establishment of a workhouse. In a single year, St James Westminster spent £520 on nursing care for eighty sick paupers (12.8 per cent of total expenditure) while in St Giles in the Fields, the equivalent figures were £600 spent on seventy paupers (14.3 per cent). And to these figures could be added the £2,000 spent by the two parishes to support hundreds of dependant orphaned and deserted children. 5

The system used in St Martin, St James and St Giles was radically reconfigured with the establishment of large parish workhouses in 1725, but other parishes, most notably those without workhouses, continued to use independent nurses throughout the century. St Clement Danes, one of the parishes whose records are included on this site, retained the services of a series of nurses for children throughout the century, and for adults until the creation of its own workhouse in 1773. Jonas Hanway used the example of one of the St Clement Danes' nurses, Hannah Poole, to exemplify the problems with the system as part of his campaign to ensure that parish children be cared for in the countryside.

How Prefab Houses Work

Manufactured houses often get a bad rep. There's nothing like getting stuck behind a truck hauling half a house to get the jokes rolling. And "trailer-trash" is part of the modern vocabulary. However, just as Starbucks redefined coffee and "Who Wants to be a Millionaire" redefined game shows, "prefab" modules are redefining assembly-line houses. Those who favor them tout benefits like smaller price tags, better construction, increased environmental benefits and quicker move-in times. Prefabs are growing in size, too. They're no longer two-room cottages without indoor plumbing modular houses can grow to thousands of square feet with multiple stories and basements. The prefab industry is expected to top $10 billion in 2007, according to money-zine.com. Plus, since Hurricane Katrina, prefab houses have gotten a boost as more attractive and sturdier alternatives to FEMA trailers.

­The assembly of a prefab house is based on the same concept as that of a car. Just as Henry T. Ford's production method for the Model T made cars affordable for the average consumer, assembly-line production and bulk buying drive down the cost and construction time for prefabricated homes. Prefabricated homes have evolved over the years and now come in many varieties and with lots of extras. Just as you can add a satellite radio or heated seats to your car, you can add hot tubs and crown molding to your modular home. Welcome to the world of prefab.­

But what exactly is a prefab house? How are the pieces constructed and assembled? How much money does it take to get a house on a plot of land? And what kind of instructional manual comes with the ultimate model kit?

­In this article, we'll find out what prefabricated houses are all about.

Can you do a home improvement project by yourself? Norma Vally thinks so. Tune in to "Toolbelt Diva" on the Discovery Home Channel and find out what you can fix ­on your own.

Prefabricated houses have a long history in the United States. An early version of a prefab home was sent from England in the 1600s, but real prefabrication did not take off until the arrival of "house kits." House kits contained all of the house's parts, so the owners built the homes themselves or hired people to construct them. The Aladdin Company started selling the earliest house kits from its catalog in 1906. One of the best-known early kit-home sellers was Sears, Roebuck and Co., which sold more than 100,000 homes from 1908 to 1940 [source: Sears archive].

A number of factors contributed to the popularity of the kit homes. Companies like Aladdin, based in Michigan, benefited from the automotive, iron, steel and coal industries that were booming in their areas. People with money wanted to build houses for their families away from the city, and an improving road system allowed them to build in the country. Additionally, just as in the automotive industry, manufactured houses benefited from assembly-line production. Housing parts, instead of being constructed on site by carpenters, could be mass-produced on conveyor belts and shipped to the site for much lower costs. Skilled technicians wouldn't have to make plaster walls if drywall could be mass-produced in a factory. Plumbing and electrical wiring, which could also be installed much more cheaply at a factory instead of on site by an assortment of skilled laborers.

Lower costs meant that more middle-class Americans could build homes. For less than $2,500, the home buyer received a kit containing about 30,000 pieces -- including everything from lumber to nails and hardware to paint and shingles -- plus a book on how to construct the home.

The kit homes were not just for those looking to build their first homes they were popular for the more upwardly mobile who wanted a vacation home or beach bungalow. For those interested in taking their vacation homes with them, "trailer coaches" were invented in the 1920s. But after the stock-market crash of 1929, not nearly as many people had the money for their own homes, and kit-home sales declined.

Mobile homes were the first type of prefab home sales to rebound after World War II. Returning veterans needed housing, and many were taking to the new highway systems with their families. Mobile homes were also cheap, so eventually, many people stopped moving theirs from town to town and settled down, using their mobile homes as their permanent residences.

By the 1970s, the federal government decided to regulate these manufactured homes for safety reasons, and in 1976 the government adopted the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development building code -- more commonly known as the HUD Code. The code set standards for heating, plumbing and electrical systems, as well as structural design, construction, fire safety and energy efficiency. (In 1994, the government updated the HUD Code to include even higher standards for prefabricated housing.)

After that, manufactured homes became a source for low-cost housing. However, in the past few decades -- and especially since the current housing slump -- innovations have allowed manufactured homes to cater to a more upscale market and to those looking to go "green." And people in more crowded countries looking to build affordable, durable housing have also turned to prefab.

Next, we'll learn a­bout the prefab modern homes.

Although the concept of modern prefab design has been around since the '60s, the architectural movement didn't take off until early 2000. As technological advances like SIP panels (structural insulating that is precut and can be locked together) were made and interest in residential architectural design blossomed, architects turned their attention to prefab houses. The goal was to create a home that could be transported to a building site, be easily erected and look like modern architecture -- all within a reasonable budget.

To further stoke the flames of interest, Dwell magazine held a modern prefab invitational in 2003 to create an economical prefab home that could be mass-produced. Allison Arieff, the former editor of Dwell, had written the 2002 book "Prefab," which profiled modern prefab prototypes. Nathan Wieler and Ingrid Tung contacted Arieff with the hopes of obtaining more information about how to build a modern prefab home. Instead, Arieff asked the couple if they'd be interested in using their land in Pittsboro, N.C., as the site for a design competition. With an initial construction budget of $200,000, the couple agreed and soon was helping the magazine create the criteria for the home and judging designs [source: Boston Globe].

The Dwell invitational created an opportunity to take the modern prefab concept and make it a reality, with the goal of introducing mass-produced prefab homes with architectural modern flair to the market. However, challenges remained. The architectural firm Resolution: 4 Architecture delivered the design, but the project went $50,000 over budget, resulting in the reduction of the home's footprint in order to stay within budget [source: Dwell].

The cost of a modern prefab home remains the chief complaint today, with the average modern prefab home running about $175 to $250 per square foot [source: BusinessWeek]. In fact, Dwell magazine is now offering modern prefab homes through their company Empyrean. Proponents of the movement point out that although many of the products available cost as much as, if not more than, stick-built homes, homeowners can save money in design and construction costs. Many architect-designed homes exceed $300 per square foot, not including design fees [source: The New Yorker] . After all, you're not paying for one-of-a-kind architecture. The architect is reselling the design, and even if modifications are needed, those costs are usually small.

When it comes to mass-producing affordable modern prefab homes, Rocio Romero is one of the most recognized architects. Romero's company, located in Perryville, Mo., creates flat-packed cubelike houses with sleek, modern exteriors. House kits range from $23,650 to $45,255 [source: Rocio Romero]. Finishes and amenities also impact the price. Romero uses a series of interlocking panels for ease of building construction. The company also sends a videotape along with instructions for the general contractor or the handy homeowner who goes it alone.

While some prefabs qualify as "traditional homes" to mortgage companies because they use some of the methods of stick-built homes, others do not. But many new modern prefabs are being introduced to home-builders. The Swedish company, IKEA, introduced its modern prefab home, the BoKlok, to the European market. In 2006, the Walker Art Museum presented an exhibit around modern prefab, "Some Assembly Required: Contemporary Prefabricated Houses." And as the market demands more environment- and wallet-friendly housing choices, the modern prefab market should continue to grow in the scope of its offerings.

In the next section, we'll learn about the different types of traditional prefab houses.­

Architectural firm Alchemy Architects has created a 62-foot-long rectangular home for $175 per square foot. Fabrication of the home can take up to 24 weeks. Once it's shipped to the building site, the home is placed on the foundation by a crane and is ready for hookups and move-in [source: Alchemy Architects]. The company can also stack multiple units to create different design options.

"Prefabricated housing" is an umbrella term that covers manufactured and modular homes.

Manufactured homes (previously known as mobile homes) are built on nonremovable steel frames, known as chasses. The chasses are used for transporting the homes and for permanent support. Manufactured homes are built according to Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards (HUD Code) and can be placed on permanent foundations, at which point they can be considered real estate. They typically are considered a low-cost alternative to regular construction because of their assembly-line construction.

Modular housing, on the other hand, is considered manufactured housing's higher-class sibling and is associated more with the "prefab" trend. Modular homes consist of units or modules that are constructed in factories and joined together on site they often use costlier materials and are bigger than manufactured homes. Plus, modular housing offers many more customization options, including pricey upgrades like granite countertops and personal touches like antique tile flooring. In fact, many upscale module houses are pricier than site-built (also known as stick-built) houses after owners add the desired details and upgrades. Modular housing must conform to the home site's state, local and regional building codes -- which go above and beyond HUD Code restrictions. The houses are transported on reusable carriers and are classified as real estate once they're placed. Modular homes do not use steel frames similar to stick-built homes, they are constructed using wooden beams with steel posts for support. The framework, as well as the fact that modules can be stacked and reorganized, allows for multiple stories and basements.

A subset of modular housing is panelized and precut homes -- but sometimes modular housing is considered the subset of panelized and precuts, depending on whom you ask. The walls of panelized homes are constructed in factories and shipped to the site, much like rooms are shipped in modular housing. Precut homes have separate units joined together on-site, but the homes are much more structured, designed like puzzles that fit together in a unique order, rather than the à la carte construction method of modular housing. Log homes usually fall into the panelized or precut category.

Manufacturers have started to expand operations for choosing a prefabricated house. Some buyers will go to a showroom and pick out units or rooms, but prefab manufacturers are now trying out site-selling. Buyers can go to a site or even a community and tour houses that they can buy, and a manufacturer will deliver the pieces to the home site. They can also pick and choose rooms and customizations.

Ordering a prefab home sounds like a cinch, but what other costs need to be factored in? We'll find out them on the next page.

There’s been plenty of bad press about FEMA in the wake of Hurricane Katrina, and the trailers that the agency set up for the displaced victims of the storm have also been widely criticized. Besides being aesthetically unpleasing (the Times-Picayune of New Orleans said they have “refrigerator styling”), the FEMA trailers are also considered unsafe should another big hurricane hit the Gulf region. There is also concern about the air quality in the trailers -- tests have shown t­hat the formaldehyde concentration in many of them is higher than the EPA considers safe. Many prefabricated homebuilders say they can construct sturdier and bigger homes faster than FEMA can find trailers. Plus, some of them claim they can beat the prices FEMA is paying for the trailers.

History of Marketing

The business historian, Richard S. Tedlow, identifies four stages in the evolution of market segmentation:

Fragmentation (pre-1880s): The economy was characterised by small regional suppliers who sold goods on a local or regional basis.

Unification or Mass Marketing (1880s–1920s): As transportation systems improved, the economy became unified. Standardised, branded goods were distributed at a national level. Manufacturers tended to insist on strict standardisation in order to achieve scale economies with a view to penetrating markets in the early stages of a product’s life cycle. e.g. the Model T Ford.

Segmentation (1920s–1980s): As market size increased, manufacturers were able to produce different models pitched at different quality points to meet the needs of various demographic and psychographic market segments. This is the era of market differentiation based on demographic, socio-economic and lifestyle factors.

Hyper-segmentation (1980s+): a shift towards the definition of ever more narrow market segments. Technological advancements, especially in the area of digital communications, allow marketers to communicate with individual consumers or very small groups. This is sometimes known as one-to-one marketing.

The practice of market segmentation emerged well before marketers thought about it at a theoretical level. Evidence suggests that the practice of market segmentation was developed incrementally from the 16th century onwards. Retailers, operating outside the major metropolitan cities, could not afford to serve one type of clientele exclusively, yet retailers needed to find ways to separate the wealthier clientele from the riff raff. One simple technique was to have a window opening out onto the street from which customers could be served. This allowed the sale of goods to the common people, without encouraging them to come inside.

Another solution, that came into vogue from the late sixteenth century, was to invite favored customers into a back-room of the store, where goods were permanently on display. Yet another technique that emerged around the same time was to hold a showcase of goods in the shopkeeper’s private home for the benefit of wealthier clients. Samuel Pepys, for example, writing in 1660, describes being invited to the home of a retailer to view a wooden jack. The eighteenth century English entrepreneurs, Josiah Wedgewood and Matthew Boulton, both staged expansive showcases of their wares in their private residences or in rented halls to which only the upper classes were invited while Wedgewood used a team of itinerant salesmen to sell wares to the masses. Evidence of early marketing segmentation have also been noted in other parts of Europe. A study of the German book trade found examples of both product differentiation and market segmentation in the 1820s.

Wendell R. Smith is generally credited with being the first to introduce the concept of market segmentation into the marketing literature in 1956 with the publication of his article, Product Differentiation and Market Segmentation as Alternative Marketing Strategies. Smith’s article makes it clear that he had observed many examples of segmentation emerging and to a certain extent saw this as a natural force in the market that would not be denied. As Schwarzkopf points out, Smith was codifying implicit knowledge that had been used in advertising and brand management since the 1920s.

Contemporary market segmentation emerged in the twentieth century as marketers responded to two pressing issues. Demographic and purchasing data were available for groups but rarely for individuals and secondly, advertising and distribution channels were available for groups, but rarely for single consumers. Between 1902 and 1910, George B Waldron, working at Mahin’s Advertising Agency in the United States used tax registers, city directories and census data to show advertisers the proportion of educated vs illiterate consumers and the earning capacity of different occupations etc. in a very early example of simple market segmentation. In 1924 Paul Cherington developed the ‘ABCD’ household typology the first socio-demographic segmentation tool. With access to group level data only, brand marketers approached the task from a tactical viewpoint. Thus, segmentation was essentially a brand-driven process.

Until relatively recently, most segmentation approaches have retained this tactical perspective in that they address immediate short-term decisions such as describing the current “market served” and are concerned with informing marketing mix decisions. However, with the advent of digital communications and mass data storage, it has been possible for marketers to conceive of segmenting at the level of the individual consumer. Extensive data is now available to support segmentation at very narrow groups or even for the single customer, allowing marketers to devise a customized offer with an individual price which can be disseminated via real-time communication

1.In his oft-cited work, New and Improved: The Story of Mass Marketing in America, Basic Books, N.Y. 1990 pp. 4–12, Richard Tedlow outlines first three stages: fragmentation, unification and segmentation. In a subsequent work, published three years later, Tedlow and his co-author thought that they had seen evidence of a new trend and added a fourth era, termed Hyper-segmentation (post 1980s) See Tedlow, R.A. and Jones, G., The Rise and Fall of Mass Marketing, Routledge, N.Y., 1993 Ch 2

2.Fullerton, R., “Segmentation in Practice: An Overview of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries,” in Jones,D.G.B. and Tadajewski,M. (eds), The Routledge Companion to Marketing History, Oxon, Routledge, 2016, p. 94

3.Cox, N.C. and Dannehl, K., Perceptions of Retailing in Early Modern England, Aldershot, Hampshire, Ashgate, 2007, pp. 155–59

4.McKendrick, N., Brewer, J. and Plumb. J.H., The Birth of a Consumer Society: The Commercialization of Eighteenth Century England, London, 1982.

5.Fullerton, R.A., “Segmentation Strategies and Practices in the 19th-Century German Book Trade: A Case Study in the Development of a Major Marketing Technique”, in Historical Perspectives in Consumer Research: National and International Perspectives, Jagdish N. Sheth and Chin Tiong Tan (eds), Singapore

6.Cano, C., “The Recent Evolution of Market Segmentation Concepts and Thoughts Primarily by Marketing Academics,” in E. Shaw (ed) The Romance of Marketing History, Proceedings of the 11th Conference on Historical Analysis and Research in Marketing (CHARM), Boca Ranton, FL, AHRIM, 2003.

7.Smith, W.R., “Product Differentiation and Market Segmentation as Alternative Marketing Strategies,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1956, pp. 3–8 and reprinted in Marketing Management, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1995, pp. 63–65

8.Schwarzkopf, S., “Turning Trade Marks into Brands: how Advertising Agencies Created Brands in the Global Market Place, 1900–1930” CGR Working Paper, Queen Mary University, London, 18 August 2008

9.Jones, G.D.B. and Tadajewski, M. (eds), The Routledge Companion to Marketing History, Oxon, Routledge, 2016, p. 66

10.Lockley, L.C., “Notes on the History of Marketing Research”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 14, No. 5, 1950, pp. 733–736

11.Lockley, L.C., “Notes on the History of Marketing Research”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 14, No. 5, 1950, pp. 71

12.Kara, A and Kaynak, E., “Markets of a Single Customer: Exploiting Conceptual Developments in Market Segmentation”, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 31, No. 11/12, 1997, pp. 873–895

The McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet is essentially a carrier-based aircraft with air-to-air and air-to-ground capabilities. It was the first aircraft to make use of carbon fiber wings as well as fly-by-wire avionics. The Hornet first saw action in the 1991 Gulf War in both ground attack and air superiority roles.

The BAE Harrier II was the last model in the Harrier family which initially entered service in 1969. This upgraded model was introduced in 1989 with 143 built. The Harrier II is both capable of operating from small airfields and aircraft carriers thanks to its vertical take-off and landing capabilities. It can be used in a number of roles, including close air support.

Boulton and Paul P.66 - History

The Citabria is a light single-engine, two-seat, fixed conventional gear airplane which entered production in the United States in 1964. Designed for flight training, utility and personal use, it is capable of sustaining aerobatic stresses from +5g to -2g. Its name spelled backwards, "airbatic", reflects this.

The Fairchild Model 24, also called the Fairchild Model 24 Argus/UC-61 Forwarder or Fairchild Model 24 Argus, is a four-seat, single-engine monoplane light transport aircraft designed by the Fairchild Aviation Corporation in the 1930s.

The General Aircraft G1-80 Skyfarer was a 1940s American two-seat cabin monoplane aircraft built by the General Aircraft Corporation of Lowell, Massachusetts. The General Aircraft Corporation was established to build an aircraft designed by Doctor Otto C. Koppen from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The aircraft was the G1-80 Skyfarer, a two-seat cabin high-wing braced monoplane with a light alloy basic structure and a mixed steel tube and fabric covering. It had an unusual tail unit, a cantilever tailplane with the elevator mounted on the upper surface of the tail with aluminum endplate fins and no movable rudders. It was powered by a 75 hp (56 kW) Avco Lycoming GO-145-C2 geared air-cooled four-cylinder engine

The Globe Swift, also known as the Globe/Temco Swift, is a light, two-seat sport monoplane from the post-World War II period.

Designer Ben "Benny" Howard, after his success with smaller aircraft, designed and built the Mister Mulligan, a successful 4-seat cross-country racer that also proved a worthy closed-course mount. While Beechcraft had designed and produced their Staggerwing for the private market, that aircraft was mechanically and structurally complex Howard instead chose to emulate (on a larger scale) the simpler Monocoupe design. After winning both the Bendix and Thompson trophies in 1935, Howard turned to the formation of the Howard Aircraft Company - later Howard Aircraft Corporation on January 1, 1937, to produce commercial versions of the now-famous DGA cabin monoplanes, each custom-built by Ben Howard and Gordon Israel.

The Interstate Cadet was an American two-seat tandem, high wing, single-engine monoplane light aircraft. Around 320 of these aircraft were produced between the years 1941 and 1942 by the Interstate Aircraft and Engineering Corporation based in El Segundo, California. The construction techniques employed were a welded steel tube fuselage, wood (spruce) wing structure with metal ribs, and fabric covering, all of which were fairly standard in the 1940s. An Interstate Cadet, flown by aviator Cornelia Fort and an unknown student, was one of the first aircraft (if not the first) to be attacked by IJNAS Japanese naval planes en route to the Pearl Harbor attack on December 7, 1941.

The Luscombe 10 was a single-seat sport aircraft built in the United States in 1945. It was a conventional, low-wing cantilever monoplane with fixed, tailwheel landing gear, designed for aerobatics. The wings, tail unit, and engine section were all adapted from the Luscombe 8, while the fuselage center section was an all-new design, relocating the Model 8's wings from a high to low position. Despite promising results from flight testing, Luscombe ultimately felt that there was not a sufficient market for the type, and development was halted almost immediately. The sole prototype (registration NX-33337) was destroyed in 1948 for tax reasons.

The Miles M.14 Magister is a British two-seat monoplane basic trainer aircraft built by the Miles Aircraft for the Royal Air Force and Fleet Air Arm. Affectionately known as the Maggie, the Magister was based on Miles' civilian Hawk Major and Hawk Trainer and was the first monoplane designed specifically as a trainer for the RAF. As a low-wing monoplane, it was an ideal introduction to the Spitfire and Hurricane for new pilots.

The North American Aviation P-51D Mustang is an American long-range, single-seat fighter and fighter-bomber used during World War II and the Korean War, among other conflicts. The Mustang was designed in 1940 by North American Aviation in response to a requirement of the British Purchasing Commission.

The Vultee P-66 Vanguard was a United States Army Air Forces fighter aircraft. It was initially ordered by Sweden, but by the time the aircraft were ready for delivery in 1941, the United States would not allow them to be exported, designating them as P-66s and retaining them for defensive and training purposes.

The Piper L-4 Grasshopper was a military version of the famous Piper Cub of the 1930s. It was designated in the L category for liaison aircraft. Stinson, Taylorcraft, Aeronca, and Piper were light plane manufacturers that built military versions of their civilian counterparts during World War II, designated L-1s through L-5s. After initial evaluations, the first L-4s were produced in 1941. Different models were manufactured, and by the end of World War II, over 5000 had been built. This particular aircraft is a J model and, along with the H model, were the most numerous produced. They differed from other models mainly in that they had a manual controllable pitch propeller.

The Speedster was a high-wing strut-braced monoplane of conventional design with an enclosed cabin and fixed, tailskid undercarriage. Developed during the Great Depression, work was suspended between 1934 and 1937. By the time it was resumed, the ACE Cirrus engine that had powered the two prototypes was out of production, and Speedsters produced in series had Menasco C-4 engines

The Ryan (originally North American) Navion is a United States single-engine, unpressurized, retractable gear, four-seat aircraft originally designed and built by North American Aviation in the 1940s. It was later built by Ryan Aeronautical Company and the Tubular Steel Corporation (TUSCO). The Navion was envisioned as an aircraft that would perfectly match the expected postwar boom in civilian aviation, since it was designed along the general lines of, and by the same company which produced the North American P-51 Mustang.

The Stinson L-1 (O-49) Vigilant (company designation Model 74) was a 1940s American light observation aircraft built by the Stinson Aircraft Company at Wayne, Michigan (by November 1940 a division of Vultee Aircraft Corporation).[1] The aircraft was operated by the United States Army Air Corps as the O-49 until 1942.

The Supermarine Spitfire is a British single-seat fighter aircraft used by the Royal Air Force and other Allied countries before, during and after World War II. Many variants of the Spitfire were built, using several wing configurations, and it was produced in greater numbers than any other British aircraft.

Taylorcraft Aviation is an airplane manufacturer that has been producing aircraft for more than 70 years in several locations. The company builds small single-engined airplanes. The Taylorcraft design is a conventional layout: high-wing, fabric-covered, two-seat aircraft. The Taylorcraft L-2 Grasshopper is an American observation and liaison aircraft built by Taylorcraft for the United States Army Air Forces in World War II. In 1941 the United States Army Air Forces ordered four Taylorcraft Model Ds with the designation YO-57. They were evaluated in the summer of 1941 during maneuvers in Louisiana and Texas where they were used for support purposes such as light transport and courier. General Innis P. Swift, commander of the 1st Cavalry Division, coined the 'grasshopper' name after witnessing a bumpy landing. This led to a production order under the designation O-57 Grasshopper. In March 1942, the designation was changed to L-2 Grasshopper

The Grumman F4F Wildcat is an American carrier-based fighter aircraft that began service with both the United States Navy and the British Royal Navy in 1940, where it was initially known as the Martlet.

The Vultee XP-54 Swoose Goose was a prototype fighter built by the Vultee Aircraft Company for the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF). Vultee had submitted a proposal in response to a U.S. Army Air Corps request for an unusual configuration. The Vultee design won the competition, beating the Curtiss XP-55 Ascender and the Northrop XP-56 Black Bullet. Vultee designated it Model 84, a descendant of their earlier Model 78. After completing preliminary engineering and wind tunnel tests, a contract for a prototype was awarded on 8 January 1941. A second prototype was ordered on 17 March 1942. Although it appeared to be a radical design, its actual performance was lackluster and the project was subsequently canceled.

The Fairey Barracuda was a British carrier-borne torpedo and dive bomber used during the Second World War, the first of its type used by the Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm to be fabricated entirely from metal. It was introduced as a replacement for the Fairey Swordfish and Fairey Albacore biplanes. It is notable for its role in attacking the German battleship Tirpitz, and known for its ungainly appearance on the ground.

The Blackburn B-24 Skua was a carrier-based low-wing, two-seater, single-radial engine aircraft operated by the British Fleet Air Arm which combined the functions of a dive bomber and fighter. It was designed in the mid-1930s and saw service in the early part of the Second World War. It took its name from the sea bird.

The Fleet Model 80 Canuck is a Canadian light aircraft featuring two seats in side-by-side configuration. The Canuck was designed for the flight training, personal use and light commercial roles. A total of 225 Canucks were built by two manufacturers during its thirteen-year production run, with the majority being built by Fleet Aircraft between 1945 and 1947.

The Caudron Cyclone C.710 were a series of light fighter aircraft developed by Caudron-Renault for the French Air Force just prior to the start of World War II. One version, the C.714, saw limited production, and were assigned to Polish pilots flying in France after the fall of Poland in 1939. A small number was also supplied to Finland.

The Curtiss P-40 Warhawk is an American single-engined, single-seat, all-metal fighter and ground-attack aircraft that first flew in 1938. The P-40 design was a modification of the previous Curtiss P-36 Hawk which reduced development time and enabled a rapid entry into production and operational service. The Warhawk was used by most Allied powers during World War II, and remained in frontline service until the end of the war. It was the third most-produced American fighter of World War II, after the P-51 and P-47 by November 1944, when production of the P-40 ceased, 13,738 had been built,[4] all at Curtiss-Wright Corporation's main production facilities at Buffalo, New York. FULL SIZE PLAN

XP-55 Ascender Curtiss XP-55 Ascender in flight 061024-F-1234P-007.jpg Curtiss XP-55 Ascender in flight. Role Fighter Manufacturer Curtiss-Wright Corporation First flight 19 July 1943 Status Canceled at flight-test stage. Number built 3 The Curtiss-Wright XP-55 Ascender (company designation CW-24) is a 1940s United States prototype fighter aircraft built by Curtiss-Wright. Along with the Vultee XP-54 and Northrop XP-56, it resulted from United States Army Air Corps proposal R-40C issued on 27 November 1939 for aircraft with improved performance, armament, and pilot visibility over existing fighters it specifically allowed for unconventional aircraft designs. A highly unusual design for its time, it had a canard configuration, a rear-mounted engine, swept wings, and two vertical tails. Because of its pusher design, it was sarcastically referred to as the "Ass-ender".[1] Like the XP-54, the Ascender was initially designed for the Pratt & Whitney X-1800 engine and had to be redesigned when that engine project was canceled. It was also the first Curtiss fighter aircraft to use tricycle landing gear.

The Boulton Paul Defiant is a British interceptor aircraft that served with the Royal Air Force (RAF) during World War II. The Defiant was designed and built by Boulton Paul Aircraft as a "turret fighter", without any forward-firing guns, a concept also implemented by the Royal Navy's Blackburn Roc. In combat, the Defiant was found to be reasonably effective at its intended task of destroying bombers but was vulnerable to the Luftwaffe's more manoeuvrable, single-seat Messerschmitt Bf 109 fighters. The lack of forward-firing armament proved to be a great weakness in daylight combat and its potential was realised only when it was converted to night fighting.[2] It was supplanted in the night fighter role by the Bristol Beaufighter and de Havilland Mosquito. The Defiant found use in gunnery training, target towing, electronic countermeasures and air-sea rescue. Among RAF pilots it had the nickname "Daffy"

The Hawker Hurricane is a British single-seat fighter aircraft of the 1930s–1940s that was designed and predominantly built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd. for service with the Royal Air Force (RAF). Although overshadowed in the public consciousness by the Supermarine Spitfire's role during Battle of Britain in 1940, the Hurricane actually inflicted 60 percent of the losses sustained by the Luftwaffe in the engagement. The Hurricane went on to fight in all the major theatres of The Second World War. The Hurricane originated from discussions during the early 1930s between RAF officials and British aircraft designer Sir Sydney Camm on the topic of a proposed monoplane derivative of the Hawker Fury biplane. Despite an institutional preference at the time for biplanes and repeated lack of interest by the Air Ministry, Hawker chose to continue refining their monoplane proposal, which resulted in the incorporation of several innovations that would become critical to wartime fighter aircraft, including retractable undercarriage and a more powerful engine in the form of the newly developed Rolls-Royce Merlin engine. In late 1934, the Air Ministry placed an order for Hawker's "Interceptor Monoplane". On 6 November 1935, the prototype Hurricane, K5083, performed its maiden flight.

The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-3 (Russian: Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-3) was a Soviet fighter and interceptor aircraft used during World War II. It was a development of the MiG-1 by the OKO (opytno-konstruktorskij otdel — Experimental Design Department) of Zavod (Factory) No. 1 to remedy problems found during the MiG-1's development and operations. It replaced the MiG-1 on the production line at Factory No. 1 on 20 December 1940 and was built in large numbers during 1941 before Factory No. 1 was converted to build the Ilyushin Il-2.

Progressive Enlightenment: The Origins of the Gaslight Industry, 1780-1820

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Ankle Equinus Deformity and Its Relationship to High Plantar Pressure in a Large Population with Diabetes Mellitus

Lawrence A. Lavery, David G. Armstrong, Andrew J. M. Boulton Ankle Equinus Deformity and Its Relationship to High Plantar Pressure in a Large Population with Diabetes Mellitus. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 1 October 2002 92 (9): 479–482. doi: https://doi.org/10.7547/87507315-92-9-479

The authors undertook a study to evaluate the prevalence of ankle equinus and its potential relationship to high plantar pressure in a large, urban population with diabetes mellitus. The first 1,666 consecutive people with diabetes (50.3% male mean [±SD] age, 69.1 ± 11.1 years) presenting to a large, urban, managed-care outpatient clinic were enrolled in this longitudinal, 2-year outcomes study. Patients received a standardized medical and musculoskeletal assessment at the time of enrollment, including evaluation at an onsite gait laboratory. Equinus was defined as less than 0° of dorsiflexion at the ankle. The overall prevalence of equinus in this population was 10.3%. Patients with equinus had significantly higher peak plantar pressures than those without the deformity and were at nearly three times greater risk for presenting with elevated plantar pressures. There were no significant differences in age, weight, or sex between the two groups. However, patients with equinus had a significantly longer duration of diabetes than those without equinus. Having a high index of suspicion for this deformity and subsequently addressing it through conservative or surgical means may help to reduce the risk of foot ulceration and amputation. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(9): 479-482, 2002)

Watch the video: The RAF At War The Unseen Films 1940 5of5 The Boulton Paul Turret (January 2022).